Examples of strong bases and weak bases solution will be discussed once we understand definition of base and its uses. They are widely used even in the daily life. Before discussing the examples of strong bases and weak bases solution, let us identify the bases solution, as well as its characteristics and usefulness.
Solution is homogeneous mixture of two substances (soluble and solvent substances) or more which dissolve each other that the constituents of each of these substances are physically indistinguishable. In order to determine the nature of a solution, whether the solution is acidic, bases (alkaline) or neutral, we can observe concentration of its H+ content.
Examples of Strong Base and Weak Bases Solutions
The term of base or alkaline is derived from the Arabic “Al Qali” which means “Abu”. Alkali is a term for water-soluble base. Bases are often paired with acid as both are mutually neutralizing. Acid and Bases are distinguished by its nature of aqueous solution. Bases are compounds that produce hydroxide ions (OH–) when dissolved in water. This hydroxide ion is formed because when it is soluble in water, the hydroxide (OH–) compound binds an electron. The OH cluster is always present in the base compound formulas except in ammonium hydroxide.
In contrast to acidic solutions that are definitely acidic and corrosive (able to erode the tissues of organs chemically or in inflammation), bases solutions have slightly bitter taste, caustic (usually strong bases, which are flammable, rusty, destroy-able or damageable due to chemical events), some are corrosive, and slick. However, it is not recommended to identify acid or bases solutions using any of the body’s senses, as they can have detrimental effects.
In order to recognize acidic and bases solutions, we can carry out experiment using acid-base indicators, among other indicators, the most commonly used acid-base indicator is red litmus and blue litmus paper. By using red litmus and blue litmus paper, the difference between the two (acid and base solutions) can be observable as the acidic solution will turn the blue into red litmus, while the base solution will convert the red to the blue litmus. While having tested a solution and it does not turn the red litmus and the blue litmus into the opposite color, it means the solution are neutral. Example of neutral solution is pure water.
The acid-base indicator is a tool we use to identify the nature of an acid or base solution. The acid-base indicator is organic weak acid or weak bases of which molecular color differs from the ionic color.
As we discussed earlier, acid-base indicator will go through discoloration if dripped by an acid solution or a bases solution. If we want to use natural acid-base indicator, we can use color extract from the bright or light-colored flowers.
The basicity level of a solution is measured in pH and pOH. pH or puissance de H+ is a level that indicates acidity or basicity of solution based on amount of [H+] in the solution. The neutral pH of a solution lies at stage 7. If a solution has pH of less than seven, thus the solution is acidic. Conversely, if a solution has pH of more than seven, then the solution is bases. The basicity of a solution will be directly proportional to the pH value.
Whereas pOH is the degree of acidity or basicity of a solution is measured by the amount of [OH‑] that the solution possesses. Similar to pH size, the neutral point of a solution lies at the level seven. However, in contrast to the pH level, if a solution has pOH level of less than seven, then the solution is alkaline. The level of basicity measured by pOH is inversely proportional to the pOH value. Also read: Differences between Acid, Base and Salt
Examples of Strong Bases and Weak Bases Solutions
Here are the strong bases and weak bases examples:
The bases solution is divided into two, which are strong base and weak base. A solution is considered to be strong base if:
- The solution is easily ionized
- Having the bonds between releasable atoms
- The inter-atomic bonds are easily detached due to the distance between nuclei atoms in very distant molecules.
- Having perfect ionization. If dissolved in water, all its molecules will become OH–
Strong base solutions include: NaOH, Mg(OH)2, KOH, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2.
While the meaning of weak base solutions is those of which characteristics:
- The solution is hard to ionize.
- Having hardly detachable inter-ions bond.
- The inter-ions bonds are difficult to detach due to the distance between nuclei atoms in very close molecules.
- Having partial ionization. When dissolved in water, only a part of its molecules break down into OH‑
Weak base solutions include: NH4OH, Al(OH)3, Fe(OH)3, NH3, Fe(OH)2.
In general, base solution can be identified by its properties and characteristics such as; having pH of more than 7, capable to modify its indicator color, having bitter taste and slick on the skin, sometimes causing irritation and burning to the skin, conduct an electric current, and neutralize the acidic solution.
Here is the explanation:
- pH greater than 7
The base solution will have pH greater than 7 when tested with pH meter.
- Capable to modify its indicator color
If you conduct an experiment using acid-base indicators such as red litmus and blue litmus paper, the base solution will change its indicator color, which is red to blue litmus.
- Bitter and slick on the skin
If you hold soap or cleansing agent, you will feel that these two substances are slick in your hands. The alkaline solution contained in the two objects actually makes it slick.
If you open a soap or shampoo wrapper and by mistake your teeth and mouth tastes them, it feels definitely bitter. The bitter taste of both substances also source from the base solution content.
- Causes irritation and burning to the skin
In general, some products containing alkaline/base solutions are strictly prohibited from exposure to the skin or parts of the body as they may cause irritation and even burning to the skin. For example, chlorine in large quantities, liquid bleach and formalin. Also read: Chemicals to Avoid in Skin Creams
- Conduct electrical current
Alkaline/base solutions are particularly strong bases, easily ionized in water and capable to conduct electricity.
- Neutralizing the Acidity
A simple example is base solution found in the gastritis drug. The fluid in the stomach causes gastritis contains hydrochloric acid which in normal conditions helps destroy food during the digestive process, that the base gastritis drug can neutralize the gastric acid. The acid-base reaction will produce salt and water. The reaction is called as neutralization.
Another example is lime spreaded on peat soil before planting. The base lime is spreaded in order to reduce the soil acidity. Thus we can state that in chemical terms, any substance that can neutralize acid is base substance.
In addition to neutralize acids, alkaline/base solutions can also dissolve oil and dust. This is used in cleaning products of household appliances.
Also read: Uses of Acetic Acid in Our Daily Life
Solutions including strong base and weak bases are:
- Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH), usually used in production process of paper, textile and as raw material of soap or detergent.
- Potassium Hydroxide (KOH), usually used in production of biodiesel and soap.
- Magnesium Hydroxide (Mg(OH)2), commonly used in production of gastritis drugs (ulcer drugs), laxatives and toothpastes.
- Calcium Hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), usually used in waste treatment and reduce soil acidity.
- Strontium Hydroxide (Sr(OH)2), usually used to extract sugar.
- Barium Hydroxide (Ba(OH)2), usually used in petroleum industry.
- Aluminum Hydroxide (Al(OH)2), usually used to treat stomach acid.
- Iron (II) Hydroxide (Fe(OH)2)
- Iron (III) Hydroxide (Fe(OH)3)
- Ammonia (NH3) is commonly used in production of medicines, urea fertilizer mixtures, battery manufacture, rocket fuels, explosive materials, plastic paper, and household appliance cleaners.
- Rubidium Hydroxide (RbOH)
- Urea (H2NCONH2), used in production of chemical fertilizers.
- Cesium Hydroxide (CsOH)
- Glucose (C6H2O6)
- Beryllium Hydroxide (Be(OH)2)
- Lithium Hydroxide (LiOH)
Below is a table that will allow you to identify the content of bases in a product:
|No.||Product||Base Solution Content|
|1||Laundry Soap||Sodium hydroxide,|
|2||Lime Water||Calcium Hydroxide|
|4||Soda solution||Sodium hydroxide|
|5||Cleansing Agent||Ammonia, Sodium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide|
|6||Gastritis drugs||Magnesium Hydroxide|
|9||Pipe cleaners||Sodium hydroxide|
|10||Antacids||Aluminum hydroxide, Magnesium hydroxide|
|11||Bath soap||Potassium hydroxide|
|12||Disinfectant solvent||Ammonium hydroxide|
|14||Baking Soda||Sodium Bicarbonate|
|18||Bleaching||Sodium Hydroxide, Potassium Hydroxide|
|19||Water pipeline cleaner||Sodium hydroxide|
|20||Mortar plant||Calcium hydroxide|
|25||Biodiesel Manufacture||Potassium Hydroxide|
|26||Waste treatment||Calcium Hydroxide|
|27||Acid soil neutralizer||Calcium Hydroxide|
Thus, that’s all the strong bases and weak bases examples in daily life.