There’re actually some different branches of chemistry study. There’re 5 popular Branches of Chemistry consisting of or organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry. Biochemistry itself is the study that covers the chemical processes occurred in the living organism. Biochemistry study talks about all living organism and living process.
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- Branches of Physical Chemistry
- Branches of Analytical Chemistry
- Branches of Inorganic Chemistry
- Branches of Organic Chemistry
Main Branches of Biochemistry
The sub study of biochemistry is actually quite diverse since it will follow the progress of other studies like biology, chemistry and physics. Previously, the biochemistry study mainly talks about the behavior of proteins and enzymes. Nowadays, there’re many branches of biochemistry which deal with different kind of component like the investigation of DNA & RNA, the protein synthesis process, cell membrane and many more. So, here’re some popular Branches of Biochemistry among other many branches.
This is the study about enzymes. This kind of study will cover the properties of enzymes or biological catalysts. This study includes certain proteins, certain catalytic RNA and the coenzymes & cofactors like metals and vitamins. In this enzymology study, you’ll get the definition of catalysis, the process of enzymes – substrate catalytic transition stage, activities of enzymes, kinetics reaction, regulation of enzymatic from the biochemical perspective. You’ll understand about the catalytic effects that happen in these biological elements.
In short, endocrinology is the study about hormones. The hormones are the internal secretions that are made by the special cell with the ability to affect the other cell’s functions. This study also covers the biosynthesis, function and storage of hormones, cell and tissues, hormone signaling process and many other hormones related process in living organism. In this study, you can also learn the medical endocrinology, endocrinology for plant and endocrinology for animal.
3. Molecular Biology
Molecular biology study is the discipline with the purpose to understand about the chemical process occurred in the living organism in the molecular point of view. In this study, you will cover the detailed information about classical biochemical and metabolic cycle. You will also learn about the integration and disintegration of the molecules in the living organism. You’ll see the properties of biological macro molecules like enzymes, DNA, RNA, hormones and so on in the living cell. You will understand about them and know exactly how they operate in the molecular level.
4. Molecular Genetics and Genetic Engineering
This study is the mix between biochemistry and molecular biology which covers the genes, their heritage and expression in more detail. In this study, you will learn deeply about the DNA and RNA, its special-function tools like mass sequencers, PCR, translation, DNA & RNA extracting process, in vitro & in vivo mechanism, enzymes restriction, replication of DNA and many more.
If you really want to understand about DNA & RNA, this study is suitable for you. In the molecular genetics & genetic engineering study, you will also learn about the genes, how it’s being inserted, how to silence it, and their special expressions and properties. This study aims to break the boundaries in the species since the genome of species can be inserted from one species to another species. This study also has the goal to create the proper regulation about gene expression.
5. Cell Biology
This study gives us the information about the properties, physical structure, biochemical composition, functions, life cycles of cells. The life process of cells includes its nutrition, respiration process, defensive process, its division and so on. This study also covers the communication conducted between cells in the multi-cellular organism. There’re also some techniques used in this study consisting of cytochemical techniques, plant cell cultures, observation by optical and electron microscopy, ELISA or flow cytometry and many more. The cell biology study has the strong correlation with histology, microbiology and physiology.
6. Structural Biochemistry
This study has its goal to give clear information about the biological architecture of macro molecules like proteins and nucleic acids (DNA & RNA). This study covers the peptide sequences, and physic-chemical atomic interactions that enable these structures. There’re some current studies about structural of protein that uses the basic concept of this structural biochemistry study.
7. Metabolic Biochemistry
This metabolic biochemistry study will help you understand the different types of metabolic pathways at the cellular level. This study can give us detail information about the biochemical reaction in the cell and make it possible to understand the metabolic disease. This study can be used to make a great treatment and medicine for metabolic related disorders.
This study will cover the chemical reactions and the function of immune system in the living organism. It will talk about the bacteria, viruses and their chemical reactions. This is the study that gives the great contribution in understanding about antibodies.
This study talks about the neuronal activities within the organic molecules. It covers neurotransmitters and other molecules such as neuro-active drugs influencing neuronal function.
Meanwhile, here are the applications of biochemistry in some industries:
Biochemistry Applications in Medicine
Biochemistry study is really related to the medicine industry. The concept of the biochemistry study has been widely use for the improvement in the medicine. So, here’re some great applications of biochemistry in the medicine field.
Biochemistry is really helpful for scientist to fully understand about the physiological in human body. By using he concept of biochemistry, scientist can understand about the biochemical changes occurred in the people. The search for disease curing based on the biochemical changes has been conducted to get the best medicine for certain diseases.
Biochemistry is also used in the pathology. By using this study, physician can get the hint about the biochemical changes in patients’ bodies based on their symptoms description. The physician can then confirm the patients’ symptoms by examining the chemical reaction or process in their body. For an example, the physician may examine the uric acid level in the patient’s body to understand the patient’s symptoms.
3. Nutrition Deficiency
As we’ve known that healthy life is really important to have. Nowadays, people consume multi vitamins and minerals to keep them healthy. In order to formulate the best composition of these multi vitamins or minerals, scientists use the biochemistry discipline. The function of vitamin or mineral in our body can be understood by the study of biochemistry.
4. Hormonal Deficiency
Hormonal imbalance, both in men, women or children, can lead to the many diseases. In the correlation with the biochemistry study, physicians use the concept of biochemistry to understand deeply about the hormones, their functions and reactions in the human body. By using this, physician can create the proper medicine to treat that kind of hormonal imbalance.
Biochemistry Applications in Medical Treatment
Biochemistry also has the important role in the nursing discipline. Biochemistry can be used to monitor the progress of patients regularly in the hospital. This study can be used to define the best treatment to the patients based on their conditions. Biochemistry makes it easier for the nurses to do the diagnosis of clinical condition of the patients. Here’re some other possible applications of biochemistry in the nursing.
1. Kidney Function Test
The kidney function is really related to the biochemistry study. If you have the kidney problems, as an example, you may undergo the urine test. This urine test can help us to understand the change in PH, urine color or other containment in the urine. Biochemistry is the fundamental study that covers this kind of treatment.
2. Blood Test
The blood test uses the concept of the biochemistry study. The analytical test for blood glucose level gives the understanding about the patient condition. As an example, for the diabetes patient, this kind of test can give the indication about the stages of the diabetes. There’re also another test for diabetes patient called the ketones bodies in urine test. The ketone bodies or ketone urea is the indication of the last stage of diabetes. The containment of this substance in our urine can be examined by the study of biochemistry.
3. Liver Function Tests
Another body organ which can be understood by the biochemistry study is liver. Biochemistry helps us to understand how the liver operate, the type of disorder which likely to attack liver and the effect of certain medicines to the liver condition.
4. Serum Cholesterol Test
Biochemistry can also be used to check your cholesterol level in blood. The cholesterol or other lipoproteins contained in your blood can indicate your health condition.
5. Pregnancy Test. Pregnancy test uses the presence of HCG or human chorionic gonadotropin hormone as the indication of pregnancy. This type of hormone is made by the placenta as soon as the implantation of embryo into the uterine walls. This hormone can be detected by the urine or blood sample. Thanks to biochemistry to help us discover this hormone.
6. Ames Test
Ames test is the test applied to the salmonella bacteria. This test measures the growth of this bacteria in the body. This ames test helps us to screen the chemicals to understand whether these bacteria mutate the structure of DNA. This test can also give us the indication of cancer potential in our body based on that kind chemical reaction.
7. Breast Cancer Screening
Breast cancer screening is conducted by examining the mutations in two genes consisting of Breast Cancer-1 gene (BRCA1) and the Breast Cancer-2 gene (BRCA2). The examination of these genes can be conducted by the help of biochemistry concept.
8. PKU Test
PKU or Phenylketonuria is a metabolic disease in which the individual is missing an enzyme named phenylalanine hydroxylase. The absence of this enzyme can build a phenylalanine, which can lead to mental retardation.
Biochemistry Applications in Agriculture
Biochemistry also has some valuable impact in the agriculture fields. This study is useful in the farming, fishery, poultry, sericulture, beekeeping and many more. So, here’re some popular applications of biochemistry in the agriculture.
1. Prevent Diseases
The concept of the biochemistry can be used to create the best prevention method to the diseases. It also can help to understand the treatment of that certain diseases.
2. Enhance growth
The biochemistry can help the farmer to enhance their plant growth, yield and quality of food by maximizing their fertilizers. The biochemistry helps us understand the reaction occurred between fertilizers or pesticide and the crops in the cell level. By knowing this, we can pick the right fertilizer to improve our plant growth and its quality.
3. Enhance Yield
There’re some different hormones used to different purposes. For example, there’s the hormone helping growth, or boosting flowering, or supporting the fruit formation. In fisheries, there’re hormones used to encourage the fish growth. These can only be achieved by the help of biochemistry study.
4. Soils Condition
Understanding the condition of soils is really important to make sure that we get the great farming outcomes. Biochemistry can help farmer to understand the composition of soils and their deficiencies. These data can be used to define the proper actions to solve the problems in the farming soils.
Adulteration is considered as the serious issues in agriculture field. Biochemistry can help us understand the composition of food and its alterations. Biochemical test can be used to prevent the contamination in the food product.
6. Biochemical Tests
Biochemical test can also be conducted for the pesticide residues or other toxic waste in plant, food grain and soil. This can be useful in the import and export process so that the quality of the food can be kept well.
7. In animal husbandry
Biochemical test can be done to check the quality. It can also help to diagnose any disease in animals.
8. In Fisheries
Biochemical test is used in the fisheries to monitor the water quality regularly. Water composition and its chemical reactions may change and this change can lead to the death of fishes or prawns. In this condition, the regular monitoring by biochemical test is mandatory action to be done. There’re some qualities which are examined in the water biochemical test like the salt or calcium containment, pH, waste accumulation, and so on.
Biochemistry Application in Nutrition
Biochemistry also plays the significant role in the nutrition. Biochemistry helps us understand the chemical containment in food. This can be used for keeping us health, define the optimum intake of micro & macro nutrient, vitamin, mineral, essential fatty acid, water and all important nutrients. So, here’re some good example of biochemistry application in nutrient.
1. Food Containment
Biochemistry help us the determine the food chemistry. We can understand the containment of food we consume like the carbohydrates, proteins, fats and others. We can also understand the possible physiological alteration due to the deficiency of certain nutrient.
2. The Role of Nutrients
Biochemistry make us understand the function of nutrient to human health. We can know how the vitamin, mineral and essential fatty acids impact our body. Based on its chemicals containment, physicians can also recommend the great substance for our body like the essential amino-acids, cod liver oil, salmon fish oil and many more.
3. Nutrient Values Test
By using the biochemical test, we can define the percentage or values of nutrient in certain foods we consume.
4. Food Limitation
By the concept of biochemistry, the physician can prescribe to limit usage of certain food like excess sugar for diabetics, excess oil for heart & lung problem prone patients etc. We know that these carbohydrate and fat diets can inhibit the recovery rate from said disorder.
Biochemistry Applications in Pharmacy
Biochemistry can also be beneficial in pharmacy industry. In this industry, many drugs are often stored. These are the following applications of biochemistry for pharmacy.
1. Drug Constitution
Biochemistry helps us to understand the condition of certain drugs like its possibility to degrade due to different temperature. This study can help us increasing the efficiency of drugs and minimizing the side effect
2. The Half-Life Test
This biochemical test is the test conducted to the biochemical drugs to determine the longevity of drug. We can understand the stability of drug If it’s kept in the certain temperature conditions. By this test we can get the date of expiry of the drugs.
3. Drug Storage
Biochemical test can be done to determine the condition of drugs storage. We know that drugs or other substances like enzymes and hormones are stored for dispensing. It can possibly get deteriorated due to temperature, contamination or bad storage condition.
4. Drug Metabolism
Biochemistry helps us understand about the metabolism process in drug molecules since there’re many biochemical reactions happened in the presence of enzymes. By knowing this, we can understand the side effect of certain drugs to the certain patients.
Biochemistry Applications in Plants
Biochemistry is also important for the plants life. We can understand the chemical reactions occurred in the plant and how we can maximize it in order to increase our productivity. So, here’re some popular biochemistry applications for plants.
Photosynthesis is one of the chemical reaction happened in the plant. By understanding this chemical process, we can get the information on how carbohydrates are produced by the help of sunlight, CO2 and water. There’re also complex enzymes that help plant in this process. Understanding the basic concept of this chemical reaction can give us idea on how to improve the quality of the photosynthesis process.
Respiration is the chemical reaction which is related to the photosynthesis process. As a product of photosynthesis, plant will release the oxygen while take the carbon dioxide from the air.
7. Different Sugars Study
Because of biochemistry, we can also understand that there’re some types of carbohydrates which are formed in the plants. There are trioses (3 carbon sugars such as glyceraldehyde), tetroses (4), pentoses (5), hexoses (6= glucose), heptuloses (7) and so on.
8. Plants Secondary Metabolites
Biochemistry gives us the information about the forming process of plants’ products like tannins, resins, alkaloids, gums, enzymes and phytohormones.
9. Other Functions. Biochemistry also gives us some useful information like how plants fruits get ripened, how plant seed germinates, the respiration process and so on.
Indeed, there are many applications of biochemistry in our daily life. Also, biochemistry branches have been used to compound many industries whether in medical, nursing, medicine, agricultural, and more fields.
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