Green chemistry has evolved from a small idea into a new approach to scientifically based environmental protection.
By using green chemical procedures, Can minimize waste materials, keep the atomic economy and prevent the use of hazardous chemicals. Researchers and pharmaceutical companies should be encouraged to consider the principles of green chemistry when designing processes and selecting reagents.
What is Green Chemistry?
Green chemistry also referred to as sustainable chemistry, is a philosophy of research and engineering or chemical engineering that advocates the design of products and processes that minimize the use and creation of harmful compounds.
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Green chemistry is not a new branch of science. It is a new philosophical approach that through application and extension of green chemical principles can contribute to sustainable development. Nowadays it is very easy to find in the literature many interesting examples of the use of green chemical rules. They are applied not only in the synthesis, processing and use of compound chemicals.
Many new analytical methodologies are also de-described which are realized in accordance with green chemical rules. They are very useful in conducting chemical processes and in the evaluation of environmental impacts. Implementation of appropriate sample preparation techniques, (eg SPME, SPE, ASE) allows us to obtain precise and accurate results – level analysis.
Great efforts are still being made to design an ideal process that starts from non-polluting starting material, causing no secondary product and does not require solvent to carry out chemical conversion or to isolate and purify the product. However, more environmentally friendly technologies at the research stage do not guarantee that they will be implemented on an industrial scale. The adoption of environmentally friendly methods is facilitated by higher flexibility in regulation, new programs to facilitate technology transfer between academic institutions, government and industry and tax incentives for the implementation of technology.
The purpose of the concept of green chemistry is to minimize environmental damage and human health problems caused by environmental pollution due to chemicals. The way is not by eliminating the chemical process, but by changing the chemical process to minimize contamination. (Bharati V. Badami, 2008).
12 Principles of Green Chemistry
Here’s the importance of Green Chemistry in Pharmaceuticals field:
1. Pollution Prevention (pollution prevention)
It is better to prevent the waste to treat or clean up the waste after it has been made. Examples: waste transportation, storage, and maintenance.
2. Atom Economy (atom economy)
Synthetic methods should be designed to maximize the incorporation of all materials used in the process into final products. Example: developing starting materials into products more efficiently and minimizing waste.
3. Less Hazardous Chemical Synthesis (minimizing toxic chemical synthesis)
Wherever practical, synthetic methods should be designed to wear and make substances that have flare – toxicity to human health and the environment. Example: product design by reducing reagents when possible and minimizing waste. (Read List of Toxic Chemicals Severely Restricted for Import and Export)
4. Designing Safer Chemicals (designing chemical products with the smallest possible toxicity).
Chemical products should be designed to influence the desired function and minimize toxicity.
5. Safer Solvents and Auxiliaries (saving of solvents and other auxiliary compounds)
The use of additives (eg solvents, separate ration agents, etc.) should be unnecessary – possible and harmless when used.
6. Design for Energy Efficiency (energy savings)
Energy requirements of chemical processes must be recognized for their environmental and economic impacts and should be minimized. If possible, a synthetic method should be performed at room temperature and pressure.
7. Use of Renewable Feedstocks (use of renewable materials)
Raw materials should be renewable rather than depleting when technical and economically practical.
8. Reduce Derivatives (saving derivatives)
Unnecessary (use of blocking groups, protection / deprotection, temporary modification of process / chemical physical factors) should be reduced or avoided – if possible, because such measures require additional reagents and can produce waste. (Read Most Dangerous Chemicals in The World)
9. Catalysis (catalyst use)
Catalytic reagents (as selective as possible) are superior to stoichiometric reagents
10. Design for Degradation (product degradation design)
Chemical products should be designed so that at the end of their function they break down into harmful degradation products and do not survive in the environment. (Read Chemicals & Hazardous Materials Banned and Restricted in UAE)
11. Real-time analysis for Pollution Prevention (pollution prevention analysis)
The analytical methodology needs to be further developed to enable real-time, in-process monitoring and control before the formation of hazardous substances. (Read Hazardous Substances in Plastic Materials)
12. Inherently Safer Chemistry for Accident Prevention (minimizing the possibility of work accidents); (Anastas and Warner, 1998).
To be able to achieve this green chemical concept there are several things that can be done, among others:
1. Minimize waste generated
2. Replace chemical acceleration with catalyst
3. Using non-toxic materials
4. Using raw materials that can be renewable (renewable)
5. Reduce or efficient use of chemicals used
6. Reduce or not use solvent (solvent free) or use recycled solvent
Substances and forms of substances used in chemical processes should be selected to minimize defects for chemical accidents, including broadcasting, exploratory power, and fire.
Pharmaceutical companies can influence and improve environmental performance by utilizing green chemistry. Green chemistry is being used to develop revolutionary drug delivery methods that are more effective and less toxic and can benefit millions of patients, some of whom are described here.
Use of Green Chemicals in the Pharmaceutical Industry
Here’s the importance of Green Chemistry in Pharmaceuticals field:
1. Use of enzymes for the manufacture of cosmetic ingredients.
Eastman Chemical is known as a company that makes cosmetics and toiletries . Companies like this often use strong acids and toxic solvents. The use of materials of this type requires a process expensive, to solve this problem Eastman Chemical develops the technology making ester commonly used as raw material by enzymatically. (Read Acid in Water Reaction) Making ester in this way was more efficient and safe because of raw materials natural.
An important aspect of this economic atom is shown in the synthesis process of ibuprofen (an analgesic compound). Prior to 1997, only 40% of the ingredients were absorbed into ibuprofen and the rest were wasted as a by-product. The latest method that won the green chemical competition in the United States managed to raise the content of raw materials converted into ibuprofen by 77%. What’s more, the new process has succeeded in reducing the series of reaction steps to simpler ones.
It can be concluded that Green Chemistry or green chemistry is also called sustainable chemistry is a product design and chemical process by reducing or eliminating the use or income of harmful substances both to humans and environment.
The concept of green chemistry allows the formation of solutions of various the problem that has recently been caused by most human activities. Application green chemistry in technology provides a number of benefits, among others, reducing waste,reduce costs, safer products, and reduce energy use and resources