14 Common Chemicals Used at Home – Compounds – Functions
Chemical compounds is a chemical formula created by combining two or more chemical elements. Chemical compounds can be found everywhere including in household. Many household product is made or composed by some chemical compounds. Here some chemical compounds that common in household.
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Sodium hypochlorite is one of the common chemicals used at home. Sodium hypochlorite is a compound composed from sodium salt ( Na+) and hypochlorite acid ( ClO–). In household it is commonly known as bleaching and disinfectant, because it has ability to remove stains, from mold stains, dental stains caused by fluorosis, until crockery stains. In modern days, sodium hypochlorite can be made by passing chlorine into cold dilute sodium hydroxide solution. This process should be kept below 40o celcius to keep it from forming a sodium chlorate.
Sodium hypochlorite has chemical formula as: NaClO
Sodium hypochlorite uses:
- Bleaching agent
For bleaching agent, the composition for sodium hypochlorite is around 3-8 percent and 0,01-0,05 percent of sodium hydroxide. Sodium hydroxide helps slowering the decomposition of sodium hydroxide into sodium chloride and sodium chlorate.
- For disinfectant
in pool or water treatment the measurement for sodium hypochlorite is around 12-16 percent.
- Skin care
It can be used to prevent any skin damage by increasing cell growth in skin.
- Its also can be used to make deodorant.
You may also read: Sodium Hypochlorite Uses
Sodium chloride or in household most common with a name table salt. Is the one most consumed production in the world. It is basically formed by combining sodium and chlorine with a ratio 1:1 of ion ( Na+ and Cl–). Sodium chloride is categorized as inorganic compound as it is not produced naturally, means it is produced only when sodium combined with chloride. It is usually take a form of white crystal.
Sodium chloride has chemical formula as: NaCl
Sodium chloride uses:
- Table salt
It is formed by combining 40 percent of sodium with 60 oercent of chloride. It is used as food preservative to add some salty flavour. It is also occur as salinity in seawater.
- Saline solution
It is used in medical treatment to treat dehydration, clear congestion, clean the wounds, treat eye redden and dryness, also to crate mucus. Saline solution is made by dissolving it to water.
- Soda ash industry
Sodium chloride is used to produce sodium carbonate and sodium chloride through solvay production. It is used for glass production.
You may also read: Sodium Chloride Uses
Sodium bicarbonate is an inorganic compound created from sodium ( Na) and bicarbonate ( HCO). It is also called as sodium hydrogen carbonate. The term bi in bicarbonate comes from an old naming system and it is indicate that there are twice as much carbonate per sodium ion. Sodium bicarbonate often take a form of white crystall but sometimes can be seen as a powder. As it is categorized as salt it has characteristic salty and has alakline taste almost similiar to those washing soda. Sodium bicarbonate usually made through solvay process, which is a process of reaction from sodium chloride, ammonia, and carbon dioxide in water.
Sodium bicarbonate has chemical formula as: NaHCO3
Sodium bicarbonate uses:
- Baking soda – Mostly used in cooking especially to make cake and cookies. Sodium bicarbonate will act as leavening agent to realise some carbon dioxide make it lightens and softens.
- Pest controller – Sodium bicarbonate can be used to kill cockroaches.
- pH Level – It can be used to adjust pH level in pool.
- Allergic Treats – It can be used to treat acid indigestion and heartburn. It will neutralize stomach acid. Its also can be used to treat allergic to plants.
Also read: Sodium Uses in Human Body
Ethanol has several names likes alcohol and ethyl alcohol. It is a colorless liquid with a little odor scent. It is usually produced by fermented sugar by yeast or through petrochemical process. It has an addictive characteristic causing some drunkenness efect for those who consume it in sufficient amount. Ethanol is categorized as isomer or dimethyl ether, thus means it is composed by carbon from a methyl group ( CH3-) attached to methylene group ( -CH2-) and attached to hydroxyl group ( -OH).
Ethanol has chemical formula as: C2H6O or CH3-CH2-OH or C2H5-OH or EtOH.
- It is effective to kill bacteria and fungi. It is most used in hand sanitizer.
- Act as antidote to methanol and ethylene glycol poisoning.
- It is used as engine fuel, rocket fuel, and household heater.
- It is easy to solve in water. Mostly used in paint, marker, even in care products such as a mouthwash, perfume, and deodorant.
Sodium fluoride is a colorless solid made by combining fluorocilicic acid and sodium hydroxide. It is an ionic compound made from separating Na+ ion and F– neutralized from super-phosphate fertilizer. This process sometimes need alcohol to precipitate it. It is mostly used as preventive for tooth decay, and it has its best effect when has direct contact with tooth.
Sodium flouride functions:
- It often added to prevent cavities and to maintain tooth strength and health. It is also can be added in water for the same purpose, dental health.
- Flouride therapy. It often take a form of pill, liquid, or paste. It used for medical purpose mostly for bones diseases, such as osteoporosis, it can increase bone density.
Sodium flouride has chemical formula as: NaF
Acetic acid is a colorless liquid and categorized as organic compound. It can be called by its other name ethanoic acid. It is the second most simplest carboxylic acid made from acetyl group ( Ac) and hydroxyl group ( AcOH). It has a sour and sharp smell. It is consider as weak acid because it is easy to solve in solution. But it also can be corrosive and can damaging skin if it is concentrated.
Acetic acid has chemical formula as: CH3COOH or CH3CO2H or C2H4O2
Acetic acid functions:
- In vinegar the composition for acetic acid is around 3 – 8 percent become the main composition to make vinegar after water.
- Vynil acetate monomer. Mainly used in polymer or paint and adhesive ( glue, cement, paste).
- Acetic anhydride. Mostly used in paper textile and photograph film.
- Mostly used as solvent in paint, ink, and coating.
Ascorbic Acid or L- Ascorbic Acid is a vitamin that often found in food such as tomatoes, potatoes, red peppers, and fruits. Ascorbic Acid is categorized as a weak acid. It is produced from glucose through fermentation in modern days. Ascorbic Acid has an important role in enzymatic reaction, it is act as an reducing agent, donating and transmitting electrons to various enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions.
Ascorbic Acid has chemical formula as: C6H8O6
Ascorbic Acid functions:
- Vitamin C. Its often used to prevent scurvy, cold, cardiovascular disease, and even chronmic disease.vitamin C has main function to repair any damage tissues. It is also often used in food for dietary supplement.
Acetylsalicylic Acid is composed from salicylic acid reacted with acetic anhydrates, its reaction turns salicylic acid that first in hydroxyl group change to ester group ( R-OH into R-OCOCH3). Acetylsalicylic Acid is white crystal and categorized as a weak acid. Acetylsalicylic Acid often smell like those vinegar. It is easy to decompose through hydrolysis. Its decomposed rapidly when reacted with alkalis. It is mainly used in medical sector.
Acetylsalicylic Acid has chemical formula as: C9H8O4
Acetylsalicylic Acid functions:
- It is effective to reduce pain in headache, fever, migrain, and rheumatic fever. It also has been used as preventive for those who experience a heart attack. But its consumption has been restricted for children because it can give a fatal effect for those minor.
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More Chemicals in Household
Here are more list of common chemicals used at home:
1. Monosodium glutamate
Monosodium glutamate is famous to be known as MSG in household. It is usually has a savory taste and be used as food preservative in stew and soup. Monosodium glutamate or sodium glutamate is composed by sodium salt and glutamate acid. Glutamate acid is an α-amino acid consists of two carboxyl groups of COOH and one amino grouop NH2. The sodium that contains in MSG is around 12 percent.
A natural monosodium glutamate does not have a delicious flavor a MSG that most used for food sometimes been added with other savory flavor. It is categorized as a non-essential amino acid means it can be synthesized by human body. Monosodium glutamate has chemical formula as: C5H8NO4Na
2. Sodium hydroxide
Sodium hydroxide is an inorganic compound composed from sodium ( Na+) and hydroxde ( OH–). It is colorless solid and categorized as salt. It is dissolve easily in water and melt at 318o celcius without decomposition. It is usually used in industry as a component to make pulp, soap, paper, textile, detergent, and a drain cleaner. Sodium hydroxide is often made through chloroalkali process and is obtained by the evaporation of water.
Sodium hydroxide has chemical formula as: NaOH
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3. Hydrogen Peroxide
Hydrogen peroxyde is a colorless liquid and the most simple peroxide, a term used for those compounds that have oxygen-oxygen single bond. It is normally unstable and slowly decomposes. It is usually produced in manufacture using the anthraquinone process, which is a process a reduction of an anthraquinone by hydrogenation on a palladium catalyst.
It is usually used as pulp and paper bleaching, detergent, also in cosmetic to treat acne, tooth whitening, and for alternative medicine to treat such as influenza, emphysema, AIDs, and also some cancer. It is can be found naturally in human body. Hydrogen peroxide has chemical formula as: H2O2
Sucrose is a chemical name for table sugar or more familiar as sugar. It is one of the most common material found in saccharide. Take a form of white crystal or sometimes brown, odorless or have a sweet scent, and have a sweet taste. Usually used for food additive to add some sweet flavour. Sucrose is found naturally on plants, such as roots, fruits, and nectar.
In modern days, producing process for sucrose has been improved by adding a new technology which is bleaching and crystallization. Sucrose itself is a pure carbohydrate that is a good source of energy beacuse its rapid ability to dissolve with macronutrient in order to produce energy. Sucrose also easy absorbed in our bloodstream resulting in increasing blood glucose in our bodies. Several disease that can occur is tooth decay, diabetes mellitus to obesity. Sucrose has chemical formula as: C12H22O11
Methane is one of the most abunddant material on earth. It is a natural gas that can be found both in the ground and in atmosphere. In earth you can found it under ground or deep under sea floor. It is the most simple alkane and categorized as tetrahedral which is compossed by one atom of carbon and 4 atom of hydrogen. In room temperature it is usually odorless gas, but as safety measurment in household gas it is often added with tert-butylthiol as a flavoring agent for natural gas to make it has an fragrance. Methane usually used as fuel in household or liquefied natural gas ( LNG) for industry. Methane has chemical formula as: CH4
6. Sodium Sulfate
Sodium sulfate or sodium lauryl ether sulfate ( SLES) it is produced by ethoxylation process in which ethylene oxide is add as an substrate. The result transform into half ester of sulfuric acid ( R-O-SO3–). Its main function is as foaming agent and often used in soap, detergent, shampoo, toothpaste, and many other of cosmetic product because it is known for its ability in cleansing. Sodium Sulfate has chemical formula as: CH3(CH2)11(OCH2CH2)nOSO3Na
Indeed, there are many list of common chemicals used at home in daily uses such as bleach, skin care, household things, and more applications.
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