We know that chemistry is one of the most important study which plays an important role in many aspects in our lives. There’re many sub-studies of chemistry which also have different topics and applications. We know that there’re at least 5 popular main Branches of Chemistry consisting of or organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry, physical chemistry, and biochemistry. Here’re the basic definitions from these 5 popular chemistry branches:
- Branches of Organic Chemistry – It’s the study that covers carbon and its compounds. You’ll learn about chemistry in life.
- Branches of Inorganic Chemistry – It’s the study that is more focused on the other compounds which are not included in the organic chemistry discipline. Inorganic also means that it covers the compound that don’t have the C-H bond. Most of the organic compounds are those that have metals.
- Branches of Physical Chemistry – It’s the part of chemistry study which include physics study to it. The common discipline which will be learnt on this study are thermodynamics applications and quantum mechanics to chemistry.
- Branches of Biochemistry – It’s the study which deals with chemical processes occurred in the living organism. Biochemistry study covers the theory of all living organism and living process.
- Branches of Analytical Chemistry – It’s the branch of the chemistry which talks about chemistry of matter and the development of tools used to measure properties of matter.
In this article, we will cover more about the analytical chemistry. This discipline will use instrument and methods to do separation, identification, and matter quantification. Analytical chemistry has its focus on developing the experimental design, chemo metrics and finding the new kind of measurement tools. In term of applications, analytical chemistry has wide area of application. It can be used in the medicine, science, forensics, engineering and more. This part will be explored more on the section below. In general, analytical chemistry consists 2 main groups which are classical – wet chemical methods and modern – instrumental methods.
Classical Method in Analytical Chemistry
We have to realize that the traditional method still be in use today even though we have already had the high-tech instrumentation. This classical method is the root of the analytical chemistry which we learn today. The curriculum used in the school also use this kind of classical method. So, it’s important to still learn and study about this branch. Here’re some methods used in the classical techniques both qualitative and quantitative analysis.
1. Chemical tests
There are various examples of this kind of qualitative test. One of the most popular example of chemical test is the acid test used to verify gold. There’re also the famous Kastle Meyer test intended to see the containment of the blood.
2. Flame test
Flame test is another example of the qualitive analysis which is focused on the inorganic matters. This test aims to verify the containment of ions or elements by conducting some reactions. These reactions will eliminate the chance of the ion presence by using confirming test. Nowadays, with the use of modern instrumentation, this kind of test is very rare to be used. This flame test is commonly performed in the school for the basic understanding about the qualitative method in the analytical chemistry. This method can also be used when the modern instrumentation can’t solve certain conditions.
3. Gravimetric Analysis
This qualitative method is used to define the number of material containment by doing weight test of the matter before and after some transformation process. In the school, this gravimetric test is popularly used to see the amount of water containment. The test is conducted by heating the water. Then we will see the difference weight before and after the heating process. This weight difference occurs due to the water loss during the heating process.
4. Volumetric Analysis
This kind of test is popularly known as titration test. This test is conducted by mixing the sample which is being analyzed with the certain reactant until it reaches the equivalent point. After this, we can define the amount of material containment in that mixed matter. When in the school, we learn about this analysis by seeing the color changes in the acid. There’re some different indicators which will be used to define the equivalent point of certain reactions.
Instrumental Methods in Analytical Chemistry
Here are the instrumental methods in analytical chemistry:
Spectroscopy measures the interaction of the molecules with electromagnetic radiation. Spectroscopy consists of many different applications such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, atomic emission spectroscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dual polarization interferometry, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, photoemission spectroscopy and so on.
2. Mass Spectrometry
Measures mass-to-charge ratio of molecules using electric and magnetic fields. There are several ionization methods: electron impact, chemical ionization, electrospray, fast atom bombardment, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization, and others. Also, mass spectrometry is categorized by approaches of mass analyzers: magnetic-sector, quadrupole mass analyzer, quadrupole ion trap, time-of-flight, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance, and so on.
3. Electrochemical Analysis
This kind of test is performed on the electrochemical cell which has the analyte containment. The test is done by measuring the potential amount in volt and/or current in amps. There are 3 main branches of this electrochemical analysis consisting of potentiometry, coulometric and amperometry. The potentiometry will measure the difference potential between electrodes. The coulometric will measure the rate of charge over the time. And the amperometry will measure the current flowing in the cell during certain of time.
4. Thermal Analysis
Calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis measure the interaction of a material and heat.
This instrumental method is used to reduce the complexity level in the mixture. This separation test is obviously intended for the complex chemical mixtures. The popular branches of this test include chromatography, electrophoresis and the field flow fractionation.
This kind of instrument test will do the clear visualization if the single cells, single molecules, organic tissue until nanoparticles. This kind of test is really useful in understanding the organic matter. Using this microscopy method with some traditional methods will be the great approach and beneficial for research in science in general. In this method, there’re 3 main branches consisting of optical microscopy, electron microscopy and scanning microscopy. With the quick development of camera and computer industries, microscopy test is also quickly growing. This method can be one of the most beneficial test for science.
Thus, here are the applications of analytical chemistry in daily life
Analytical Chemistry in Pharmacy Application
Commonly, analytical chemistry study is really applicable in pharmacy area. It has been used since long time ago for many purposes. The application areas include quality checking of compound from inorganic compound, organic compound, chemical products, drugs and many more.
In the pharmacy discipline perspective, analytical is the science study that gives the idea about compound separation, identification and quantification which are beneficial for some pharmacy measurement process like bioavailability of drugs. Analytical study can also be used in the purifying process during the synthesis of drugs and identifying the drug metabolic pathways. Here’re some great advantages of analytical study in the pharmaceutical field.
1. Determining Self-Life of Compound
Self-life is the time period until that kind of compound will be fit for use. In term of drug, this means the time needed for 90% of the drug containment to keep fit after it’s being produced. It’s the expiry date which is usually marked on every medicine products. We know that in pharmacy industry, medicine is stored in the refrigerator or the darker places to keep its self-life.
2. Determining Adulterants
Impurities is one of the common issue in the pharmacy industry. This happened due to the use of many chemicals intermediates and reagents. This means that there are more possibilities for impurities material like heavy metal or dirt to be included during the manufacturing process of drugs. Analytical chemistry plays an important role to determine the formula used in the impurity limitation. If the impurity contained in the drugs is more than the limit level, so that drugs shall not be consumed. The accuracy of this formulation, which uses the basic of analytical chemistry, is really important to make sure that every drug is safe to be consumed.
3. Dissolution in Drugs
The drug dissolution study is really important for the pharmacy industry. This kind of study is conducted to determine whether the medicine is released from its form, which can be tablet, ointment or capsule. So, before the medicine is produced, it should undergo the capability test to release the medicine from its form in the right kind of medium. In this study, the time needed for drug to be released is also explored.
These points are important because when medicine is swallowed by human, it stays on the stomach for not more than 1 hour. So, the ability of medicine to release should be less than 1 hour. In addition, medicine will also show different effects with different doses. This drug dissolution study uses the concept of analytical chemistry to test the releasing process of medicine from its form. Ensuring the accuracy of that process is really important, so that the strong understanding of analytical chemistry is highly needed.
4. Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis
Analytical chemistry can also be used in the medical chemistry for the qualitative and quantitative analysis.
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Analytical Chemistry Application in Agriculture
Agriculture also uses the analytical chemistry in many areas. Here’re the three major applications of analytical chemistry in the agriculture field.
5. Soil Testing
The analytical chemistry is also important for the soil test process in the agriculture field. The soil test itself aims to understand the inorganic and organic minerals containment in the soil. Knowing this data, we can understand how great is that soil to grow the certain kind of crop. This kind of test also discover the microbial environment, fertility and pesticide residues in the soil. The soil testing uses the concept of analytical chemistry in its method.
6. Water Testing
Water is one of the vital part in the agriculture. The right water shall be chosen to perfectly grow your crops. There’s example of water which is not good for the crops like the type of water which is able to deposit lime on the fertile sole making that soil not proper to be cultivated. Analytical chemistry plays the great role in analyzing the water and showing all of water containment. It can define the right water for the crops. This study also gives us idea how to make changes to the water composition so that I can be fit with the crops.
7. Harvested Crop Testing
After the crops are harvested, they have to undergo some quality test in order to check the impurities, pesticide residues and many more. This kind of test is really essential to make sure that the crop is perfectly safe to be consumed by people. And the analytical chemistry gives us the basic concept and method to conduct such this harvested crop test.
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Analytical Chemistry Application in Medical Technology & Studies
Analytical chemistry is also really impactful to the medical industry. The technology used in the health care takes the basic concept of analytical chemistry. It’s widely used in the diagnosis proses in the medical area. So, here’re some examples of analytical applications in medical.
8. Medical Test
Analytical chemistry concept is being used widely in the simple medical tests like serum cholesterol, urine ketones, and blood glucose level. In the blood glucose test, for an example, analytical chemistry is used. The common method of this blood glucose test is converting the glucose to colored substance in the beaker. Then the analysis is conducted by titration with reacting compound. This kind of test is done with the concept of analytical chemistry
9. Serum Cholesterol Test
Following the first example, serum cholesterol is another common medical test which uses the analytical chemistry study. In this kind of test, serum cholesterol is centrifuged and mixed with the colored substance. The colored layer of the cholesterol then will be analyzed with the spectrophotometry.
10. Medical Diagnosis
Analytical chemistry is used widely for medical diagnosis. Analytical chemistry gives some great options for analysis method used for health care diagnosis. There’re some common examples of analysis methods in medical like titrations, chromatography, spectroscopy and so on. These methods are less expensive and more suitable to be used in different cases.
Analytical Chemistry Application in Food & Beverage
Analytical chemistry is important too for the food and beverage industry, especially in its quality control process. There’re many applications of analytical chemistry for controlling quality of food or beverage. Here’re some examples of analytical chemistry application in food & beverage industry.
11. Food Contamination Test
Contamination from outside sources can also occur in the food or beverage products. This can be caused by some reasons like improper storage, not suitable raw material or improper process in the packaging or manufacturing process. There’s many different kind of contaminants like pesticide. To minimize this risk, the food containment test is always conducted using the analytical chemistry concept. This study gives information about right method to detect the containment even in the low percentage.
12. Off-Flavor Food Test
Contamination can also cause the off-flavor in the food products. The contamination source can be from packaging material. Using the method in analytical chemistry, this off-flavor food test can surely be done to make sure that foods meet its required quality.
13. Toxic Test
There’s also risk that food or beverage contains the toxic or other bad chemical matters. This issue may be caused by the improper or contaminated raw material, bad package material and many more. Analytical chemistry can be used to check this toxic contamination in the food or beverage products. For an example, the benzene content of the orange drink can be analyzed to determine whether the beverage safe to drink.
14. Package Failure Test
Packaging failure can be the serious issue for the food or beverage company. Some package failures include packaging deterioration, contamination, sealing failure, contamination and so on. By using the analytical chemistry study, the microscopy study as an example, can give the great analysis for this package failure issue.
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Analytical Chemistry Application in Other Fields
Beside the mentioned areas above, there’re many other benefits of analytical chemistry which can be used. Here’re some great examples of analytical chemistry in various areas.
1. Spectroscopic related Applications
Spectrometry is one of the branches of analytical chemistry which has many advantages. This study has been used in many applications related to the spectroscopy field. In atomic absorption spectrometry for example. This study is used to measure metal in the low concentration. Here’re some great spectrometry study examples:
- In UV-visible molecular spectrometry is used to performing quantitative analysis in determining the transition metal ions. Here
- Fluorescence spectrometry is being used in biochemical analysis
- Microwave Spectroscopy is used in atmospheric analysis. This can be used to analyze the level CO2 in atmosphere.
- Near Infrared Spectroscopy is used in food analysis.
- Mass spectroscopy is used to identify organic compounds. Petroleum analysis is commonly performed using this study
- C-13 NMR spectroscopy can be used for polymer analysis. It can also be used for cosmetics analysis.
- Solid state NMR Spectroscopy is beneficial for medical imaging. Besides, it can be used for different kind of analysis such as coal, fruit, and plastics analysis.
- Photoacoustic Spectroscopy is used for identifying molecules in solid material. For example, analysis of mineral containment in rock
- X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy is used to identify the elements contained in an alloy material.
- Electron spin resonance spectroscopy can be used well to Identify free radicals
2. Chip Size Studies
Analytical chemistry can also be used in the chip industry. Scientists are trying to invent the analysis method for reducing the chip size. There are some methods which have been performed and analytical chemistry shows the great potential. The microscale chemistry can reduce the number of chemical used in that chip size. This gives promise that analytical chemistry can be used to reduce the chip size while making it better in speed.
3. Biological System Analysis
The science is really developing now. And analytical chemistry gives the vital role for understanding basic science in many applications, including biological system. The study about genetic fingerprint, DNA micro array, protein modification and many more use the basic concept of analytical chemistry. Besides, analytical chemistry is also beneficial for biomedical applications.
4. Nano Industry
Analytical chemistry can also contribute more to the nanotechnology industry. The branches of analytical chemistry like surface characterization instruments, electron microscopes and scanning probe microscopes has helped scientists to visualize atomic structures with chemical characteristic.
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