Hydrogen is the lightweight and most widely distributed element in the universe, it is colorless, odorless and tasteless gas. It has the lowest density of all gases combined. It has atomic number of 1 and in elemental processing hydrogen is often generated. Hydrogen is an important element for human life. It is spread in water and in almost all the molecules in organics material. It is the most abundance gas in the universe. Hydrogen or symbolized by H2 has a number of very abundant chemical properties.
These chemical elements are very much widely distributed among the stars in the outer space so it can produce energy for the universe to burn through. Reactions of hydrogen protons is what produces light or other energy which allows the universe remains active to this day. Even the sun’s energy itself is a direct result from the fusion of hydrogen to form helium. And the energy in the sun is enormous.
However, hydrogen does not play a peculiarly essential role. It stays bonded to carbon and oxygen atoms, while the chemistry of life happen at the more active production concerning for example oxygen and nitrite. But it also one of the ingredients of water and essential to life creation. Hydrogen comes from the term hydro and genes which also mean “water forming” in greeks terminology.
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The nature of the hydrogen itself is flammable because the gas classification included into diatomic gases. When the pressure or temperature is above normal, this will affect the nature of the hydrogen. But if the temperature and pressure went through at a normal level then hydrogen can not be detected. This is because in the normal conditions hydrogen is not reactive so it does not produce odors or certain colors that can be recognized by the human senses. Although hydrogen gas is the most abundant element, atomic mass of hydrogen is the lowest among other gases.
In recent years, hydrogen is applied to detect gas leakage that occurs. As gas leaks that may occur in power plants or in automotive vehicles, which although small gas leaks would still result in serious injury, especially if gas leak react with other chemical elements. Although pure hydrogen is a gas, scientists find very few of it in the atmosphere. Hydrogen gas is so lightweight that unmixed hydrogen will gather enough velocity from combustion with other gases that they will quickly be evaporated from the atmosphere.
On earth surface, hydrogen happens mainly in composition with oxygen in water supply, but it is also available in organic matter such as tree plants, petrol and coal. It is also called as the free element in the atmosphere, but only few than 1 ppm by size. The lightest of all known gases, hydrogen mixed with other chemical compounds and sometimes exponentially to form chemical compounds. Hydrogen element is applied for creating several important chemical compounds. Aside from ammoniac, hydrogen can be utilized in some other ways. It can also be used to make plants fertilizers, acids and a variation of bases. This similar element is then needed for Methyl alcohol processing. Methyl alcohol is used in pen inks and paints as a solvent.
Below are hydrogen facts that are needed to better understand the elements.
- Atomic number : 1
- Atomic symbol : H
- Atomic weight : 1.00994
- Density: 0.00009988 grams per cubic centimeter
- State at room temperature: Gas
- Melting point: minus 259.34 degrees Celsius
- Boiling point: minus 252.87 C
- Number of isotopes : 3 common isotopes, including 2 stable atoms
- Most common isotope: 1H, naturally plenty 99.9985 percent
Hydrogen is a very necessary molecule with an enormous width and extensive application and usage. It is currently being applied in many industries, from chemical and refining to metallurgical, glass and electronic product. Hydrogen is mainly used as a reactant. But it is also being applied as a fuel in space exploration, as an oxygen scavenger in heat treatment of metals and for its high viscosity and density. Due to the increased usage of heavier crude oils refining, conserving higher amounts of sulfur and nitrogen and to meet strict emission standards thus the need for hydrogen is having a very fast growth in the fuel refining industry.
We have know about Nitrogen for Plants now let’s discuss the hydrogen uses in everyday life. There are several types of gas based on its usage and properties, there are so many of them that we can only discuss one type of gas. Here I would like to describe one gas that is hydrogen that has so many applicable usage and properties for corporation and people’s lives.
1. As Water Creation
It is mainly used to create water. Hydrogen gas can be used for metallic ore subtraction. Chemical process also use it for hydrochloric acid generation. This same hydrogen gas is produced for atomic hydrogen welding. Electrical backup generators use the hydrogen as its rotor coolant system. This chemical element is depended upon in many productions plants to analyzed for leaks. Hydrogen can also be consumed on its own or with other known chemical elements. Other applications include fossil fuel producing and ammonia processing. Ammonia is part of widely distributed household cleaning products exists in several branding.
2. Clean Unhealthy Unsaturated Fats Oils
It is also a hydrogenating chemical used to clean unhealthy unsaturated fats oils to pure saturated oils and fats. Liquefied hydrogen is necessary in cryogenics and in the study of superconductivity, as its melting point is only 20 degrees celcius above zero. Hydrogen is the main ingredients of Jupiter and the other gas planets. At some level in the planet’s interior atmosphere the pressure is so intense that solid molecule hydrogen is converted to solid alloy hydrogen.
3. Hydrogen and Fuel Cells
Hydrogen is a clean and environmentally safe energy compounds. A major problem for the deployment of hydrogen powered vehicles is the lack of safe light weight material and energy ergonomics means for on-board hydrogen container. Ammonia borane is a relevant hydrogen storage container for vehicles powered by fuel cells. A fuel cell is a tools that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity
4. Hydrogen as Fuel Replacement
Researchers see hydrogen gas as the clean fuel of the world that is produced from water and turn back into water when it is oxidized. Hydrogen powered fuel cells are exponentially being regarded as a pollution free sources of energy and are now being applied in some vehicles. Hydrogen is comprised of a single proton and a single electron, hydrogen is the simplest and most widely available element in the cosmos. It is regarded that almost 90% of the observable universe is comprised of hydrogen. Hydrogen is the base fuel that most stars burn to processed energy. This same process known as fusion is being researched as an applicable power energy source for applications on earth. The sun’s production of hydrogen is thought to last another 6 billion years.
5. Processed Ammoniac
Hydrogen is an actively beneficial element. Large volume of hydrogen are mixed with nitrite from the oxygen to processed ammoniac (NH3) through a production called the Haber processing. Hydrogen is also applied to fats and oils such as peanut oil, through a production termed hydrogenation. Liquefied hydrogen is applied in the study of hyper-conductivity and when mixed with liquefied oxygen makes a robust rocket fuel intake. Hydrogen mixes with other elements that form widely distribute chemical compounds. Some of the common element are: water (H2O), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), ammoniac (NH3), methanol (CH4), and hydrocarbon acid (HCl).
6. Hydrogen as Fuel Cell in Nuclear Reactor
Hydrogen chemical element is frequently used as a fuel product due to its high calorific volume. Combustion process generates huge energy. Hydrogen fuel cells produces electricity from combining oxygen and hydrogen. These electrochemical cells produces only water vapor so it is regards as safe for environment. Hydrogen can also be applied for methanol processing. The hydrogen fuel cell is a developing technology that will allow great amounts of electrical power to be obtained using a source of hydrogen gas.
Deuterium is used as a mediator to slow down progress of neutrons. Tritium atoms are also available but in much smaller scale. Tritium is readily processed in nuclear reactors and is in the production of the hydrogen fusion bomb. It is also used as a radioactive agent in making sparkling paints, and as a liquid tracer. Tritium is produces in nuclear reactions and it also is a radioactive atoms frequently used to make Hydrogen bombs. And can also be used as a luminous paint radiation energy. Fuel cells are often consumed in spacecrafts, remote weather stations in Alaska and submarines deep within earth’s crust. While in liquid form state, Hydrogen uses as rocket fuel and this type of chemical is called Deuterium and this is a heavy hydrogen and also this isotope is used for nuclear fusion reaction in nuclear reactors.
7. Use in Weather Balloons
Hydrogen burns and can be initiated by flame and static electricity and with Helium being much more expensive and now subject to scarcity, many scientists are now actively looking for more available and inexpensive alternatives such as hydrogen. Hydrogen is the only gas providing lift force similar to Helium Uses. In fact, it provides about 8% more lift force. Hydrogen is generally used in atmospheric instrumentation balloons by researchers.
The low density of hydrogen made it a perfect option for one of its first application uses that is filling balloons and airships. However, it reacts highly with oxygen to form water. Because hydrogen element is lightweight, then scientists are able to fit it within weather balloons. Meteorologists weather balloons have this element filled to the brim in the balloons. These balloons are tied with instrumentation to record important information to analyze the climate.
During the War, hydrogen were applied in balloon airships. The first use cases of gas balloon flight was pioneered in Paris in 1700s and the gas that was used in the balloon was hydrogen. Hydrogen usage in filling airships ended when the Hindenburg caught on explosion due to static electricity.
8. Industrial Applications
In America, the use of hydrogen as fuel for transport modes such as bus has long been applied. The use of hydrogen as a transportation fuel is often termed a fuel cell. Performance of vehicles using hydrogen fuel is also been proven very efficient and the most important aspects, from hydrogen fuel cell has a much lower level emissions than fuels acquired from fossils.
But unfortunately, the production of hydrogen for fuel can be prohibitively expensive. Hydrogen which is not natural gas requires material or other material that can be processed to eventually produce hydrogen. And, usually the benefits of natural gas was used to generate hydrogen. The good news, more research is pointing to the use of water or H2O as the main source of producing hydrogen.
Hydrogen is a perfect substitute for fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas in furnaces and internal combustion engines that involves turbines and jet engines. Today, environmental pressures are concentrating hydrogen research and development efforts on hydrogen as an alternative fuel to power our mobility and transportation needs. In electrified vehicles, for example, it is used to run fuel cells which convert hydrogen efficiently to electricity. Below is the type benefits of hydrogen for industry.
9. The Fertilizer Industry
Besides useful for chemical processes, hydrogen is also widely used in industry. One of them, hydrogen is used to manufacture the fertilizer industry. Here, the applications process went through by the reaction between the hydrogen and nitrogen. The results of the chemical reaction of hydrogen with nitrogen to produce ammonia which is useful as a basic ingredient of fertilizer.
10. Industrial Cooking Oil
In food industry, hydrogen is also becoming as a material to increase the saturation level of the oil and fats, typically vegetable cooking oil. Built for high saturation level because in such circumstances, the oil will have a viscosity that is sufficient to prevent it from being damaged.
11. Food Industry
Perhaps you’ll surprised to hear that in fact hydrogen is also used in the food industry. Actually, in this case hydrogen is not directly used in food production, the creation of a certain kind. Rather, cooking oil fried with fairly high saturation levels, which have been done before through hydrogenation process, which is used in the food industry. This is because this type of oil can last quite a long time and its use is not simply for the cooking. Food produced from the process of frying with oil also will be quite durable. For example the food industry that use this type of oil is the fast food industry.
12. Industrial Fuel
One of the other industries that use hydrogen is in the manufacturing of methanol, which is used as a fuel. Hydrogen fuel such as methanol is produced through the process of reshaping the existing natural gas on Earth. This process is used to produce hydrogen. In this process, there are other gases that are equally produced that is the carbon dioxide. Other fuels, namely oil also uses hydrogen gas in their production processes. Petroleum is the first to go through the process of hydrogenation to purify absorption. So it can be fuel efficient.
13. Processing Hydrogen
Hydrogen is applied in a wide range of main industries, involving chemical production, metal refinement, food producing and electronics manufacturing. Hydrogen is either delivered to customers using pipe in these manufacturing as compressed or liquefied hydrogen, or produced on-site from water-based production using a process known as electrolysis or from natural gas using a compounds call reforming. In relevant applications, there is a slowly shift towards on-site production to replace delivered compressed or liquefied hydrogen that is hugely based towards the lower cost of new on-site hydrogen procession technologies when compared to transferring hydrogen.
14. Fuel Burning
Hydrogen is already in composition as a necessary gas material in chemical industry and especially in the petrochemical field. Its many applications have been found and investigated for a greater period of time. Hydrogen for industrial usage is consumed very extensively from the fossil fuels intake that is natural gas, oil, and coal burning, which will henceforth be subtracted sooner and become much more expensive as time wears on.
It is as necessary of the fossil fuels usage as necessary materials in the chemical industry and the petrochemical industry as it is of those applied in another applications that they cannot be substituted. For the longest time, however, a differentiation must be made between the use of fossil fuels as sources of heat exchanger energy in combustion and their application as gas materials to process hydrogen and other chemicals henceforth. It may well be understood that industrial usage for very large volume of hydrogen will give increasing products to the beginning of a comprehensive towards new hydrogen technology.
15. Steel Production
Hydrogen other usage are in the fertilizer processing and paint manufacturing. It is also used in the food production and chemical substances. Food manufacturing use hydrogen compounds to make hydrogen induced vegetable fats such as margarine. In this processing, vegetable induce fats are mixed with hydrogen and by using nickel as a trigger for solid fat elements are produced.
In petrochemical plants, hydrogen is consumed for crude oil refinement. Few welding corporation tempted to use the hydrogen compounds for initiating welding torches. These torches are then applied for iron melting process. Hydrogen is acquired as a reducing element in chemical processing plant. Chemical manufacturing applied them for alloy subtraction. Such as that when hydrogen is required to turn mined tungsten in to purity.
16. Medical Treatment
The Industrial market has long benefited from the deployment of hydrogen peroxide based solutions to mitigate a variety of water, wastewater, and air pollution treatment problem. Hydrogen peroxide is another vital compound that’s also needed in furnishing the final products. Hydrogen peroxide is applied in many ways. First and foremost it is applied for medication treatment to clean most wounds and it is available in most first aid kits sold at the counter. It is chiefly used for treating injury and cuts against infections.
Peroxide can also acts as a toenail fungus disinfectant. Hydrogen peroxide can be diluted in water to expand the volume and it can eliminate bacteria and germs if used as whitewash clothing. This similar element can be also be used for tooth whitening and soothes sores medication.
Hydrogen peroxide often be used in non-medical related treatment. Other usage applications of peroxide include but not limited to a pesticide controller in the park, removing badly stains on one’s clothing and functioning as a bleaching chemicals for cleaning homes kitchen.
17. Other Element Process
Hydrogen uses for the process of removing sulfur in fuels acquired from fossil. Hydrogen is used as an ingredient for hydro de-sulfurization. The process of hydrogenation in the fuel that is intended fully to make the products of combustion engine of using such fuels have lower levels of pollution of carbon dioxide. Some of fossil fuels that went through the hydrogenation process, namely: Fuel, Kerosene, jet fuel and diesel
Hydrogen gases consumed increasingly exceed those produced in a platform and have to be supplanted by other sources. Main productions for hydrogen site supply:
- Steam reforming of methanol or other hydrocarbons
- Recovery from refinery oil gases
- Gasification of oil refining leftovers.
Demand for hydrogen will exceed demand in the coming years as a result of harsh environmental legislation. Not only just regulation but more extensive production of residues and higher diesel demand outweigh supply compared with petrol prices will also increase hydrogen’s need.
Hydrogen Production Methods
Hydrogen element is processed in several ways. They can be acquired to be consumed as hydrogen fuel cells. It can also be produced through industrial processes. Other methodological include biology hydrogen processing that is called electrolysis. Hydrogen steam reforming are also applied by many industrials plants. The most common technique for acquiring this element is steam reformation. Steam reacts when mixed with methanol to produces carbon monoxide and hydrogen.
This production is done at high temperatures level. When the temperature is cooled down, carbon monoxide will be processed. Then it can processed carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Pinch is another technique, this method shipped the element through the hydro cracking sections. The purpose is to processed the final procedure so no more hydrogen is spew outwards. Any hydrogen generated is kept for safe usage and then they are used for other utilization.
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Another problem with hydrogen fuel is that the production of hydrogen processing itself is in matter of fact not so pollution free. As of now, most of the hydrogen processed comes from natural gas a production process that generates carbon dioxide. Researchers have henceforth been trying for alternative and more environmentally applied ways of processing hydrogen that would beneficially reduces carbon monoxide emissions from the hydrogen production.
Last year though, for example, researcher at the laboratory developed a small-scale sized hydrogen production a device that generate pure hydrogen using light and carbon and without burning benzene. This newest version of the generator is really small in size but if however it can produce greater result than it can be expanded in material, it could also permitted scientists to generate ample hydrogen to supplant fuel for cars and other vehicles.
Hydrogen Production through Natural State
Another alternative of processing hydrogen is termed biological water splitting. This would involve the use of pertaining photosynthetic bacteria that applied light energy to processed hydrogen from water molecule as part of their metabolic activity, where current researchers are actively investigating this production.
Another useful methodology to processed hydrogen include the fermentation of renewable biology grade materials mass. Several researchers have also said to be working on changing agricultural leftovers such as peanut shells and consumer wastes products such as paper and oil grease into a liquid product called biology oil whose ingredients can then instead be separated into fuels, including hydrogen. The cleanest way to processed hydrogen however is through dividing water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen by using sunlight.
Thermolysis and Electrolysis
These are used for hydrogen production for industrial usage. The method is also known as water splitting. In this method, hydrogen and oxygen molecules are separated using electric currents. Heat is not necessary for electrolysis. However, high temperatures will produce better hydrogen yields. Sometimes urine is used in lieu of water. Many uses of hydrogen rely on this method. There is also bio hydrogen. The element it produces is usable. The process includes electro hydrogenesis, enzyme reactions and fermentation. With fermentation, biological materials are destroyed.
The benefits of hydrogen for human life is certainly very diverse. The existence of hydrogen on earth is naturally very plentiful indeed. The presence of hydrogen is widely used in a man-made hydrogen through a chemical engineering so as to produce hydrogen gas. In general, the industry producing hydrogen using methane to hydrogen formation can also be used in addition to the water separation process with hydrogen. Because hydrogen is most commonly found in water. Hydrogen also have the benefit that does favorable thing for life creation.
Hydrogen has been used abundantly to bond nitrogen to other chemicals products in ammoniac production and hydrogenated process of fats and oil. Hydrogen also been used a fuel for space rockets, to process hydrogen as a precursor to Hydrochloric Acid, as a reduction element vital for iron material and also as a balloon filling.
Higher electricity energy produce in large amount by hydrogen gas, such as an hydrogen fuel type battery system. Beside containing electricity, this gas can replace another natural gases like benzene and other chemical element process and rapidly turning waste into methane.
Keep in mind that besides having benefits, hydrogen is a gas that is in the category of diatomic hydrogen so that in certain circumstances can be very dangerous. Utilization of hydrogen that does not follow strict rule is one of the causes of destructive impacts of hydrogen. But as long as we use the hydrogen with the correct treatment, and not abuse this hydrogen gas in its application then hydrogen will still brings many benefits. Several disadvantages that hydrogen gas has are listed below:
- Environmental pollution from carbon dioxide gas produced by the process of hydrogenation. Carbon dioxide in large quantities can also exacerbate global warming.
- In normal circumstances, hydrogen can cause a fire. In fact, hydrogen gas can also be misused by hydrogen bomb-making materials.
- Hydrogen in a certain pressure may also cause an explosion large enough.
- Hydrogen can bonded with other elements that could make it highly reactive. For example, hydrogen and cyanide which will bond and become very toxic. The effects on humans could even lead to death.
- Hydrogen is not the type of gas that can be obtained naturally but must be produced by artificial means. In the hydrogen production that requires other natural gas to combined and this process is not cheap.
The development of increasingly advanced technology enables a wide range of research to develop the usefulness and benefits of hydrogen. Some developed countries even had a lot of producing hydrogen in a way that is more environmentally friendly that do not produce carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide residue. Because as we all know that these two elements are the elements that can be dangerous to the environment.
Based on the explanation above, one can surmise that hydrogen has the potential to change the world’s energy addiction from fossil fuels towards better environmental friendly hydrogen. Hydrogen is chemicals. If we can just generate enough electricity using hydrogen then we can power all the electric car to use better longer lasting battery and the electricity that power that lithium battery comes from hydrogen.
This future vision isn’t that far off now and will be applied widely in the coming years. As a result, there are many hydrogen uses yet also there are hydrogen disadvantages that we may have to know.
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