Nitrogen is an imperative plant supplements. It is a main ingredients in plant protein. Below article course will help discuss natural and artificial nitrogen produces and will explain the task of nitrogen in the land. Of all the abundance mineral supplements in the land, nitrogen is generally the most difficult for plants to produce.
Even though nitrogen is the most abundant chemicals in the oxygen, most living things are unable to afford the nitrogen they need from the oxygen. Most plants owner attempt to find on mineral forms of nitrogen in the land, and land animals ultimately depend on living nitrogen generated by plants.
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Nitrogen is a chemical element that has the symbol N, atomic number of 7 and atomic mass 14.00674 u. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, is 78% of the volume of the Earth’s atmosphere.
Many industrially important compounds, such as ammonia, nitric acid, organic nitrates (propellants and explosives), and cyanides, contain nitrogen. A very strong bond in the chemical element nitrogen dominates, causing difficulty for both organisms and living industry in breaking the bonds to convert N into useful compounds, but release vast amounts of energy are often useful, when the compound on fire, explode, or decay back into nitrogen gas.
The element nitrogen is found by Scottish physician Daniel Rutherford in 1772. Nitrogen occurs in all living organisms. It is a constituent element of amino acids and thus of proteins, and nucleic acids (DNA and RNA). It is situated on the chemical structure of almost all neurotransmitters, and is a component that determines alkaloids, biological molecules produced by many organisms.
Growth, development and production of a crop is determined by two main factors, namely genetic factors and environmental factors. One of the environmental factors that determine the speed of growth, development and production of a plant is the availability of nutrients in the soil is sufficient enough. Of the 105 elements in the earth’s surface, it turns out only 16 elements that are absolutely required by a plant to complete its life cycle perfectly. The 16th element consists of 9 elements 7 macro and micro elements. 9 elements of macro and micro elements 7 is called an essential element.
According to a standard method there are three criteria that must be met so that an element can be termed as essential elements:
- These elements are necessary to complete the life cycle of normal plant. The element holds an important role in certain biochemical processes in the body of plants and their role can not be replaced or substituted overall by other elements.
- The role of these elements in the biochemical processes of plants is directly and not indirectly affecting plants production. The availability of essential elements in the soil for the plants is largely determined by the pH. As an element of N at the micro elements relative otherwise provided at low pH.
- The important lesson we need to remember on the availability of the essential elements in conjunction with a pH that is that to conduct field trials suggested to the area with a soil pH of approximately 7. This is because at the pH of all essential nutrients both macro and micro different in a state that is ready to be absorbed by plant roots so as to ensure the growth and crop production.
Henceforth we will try to explain the effect rather than macro and micro elements on the growth and productivity of plants, especially the influence of N on plant growth and symptoms of deficiency and excess elements for plants.
The nitrogen cycle is one of the most important nutrient cycles in the earth’s surface. Nitrogen is used by living organisms to produce a number of complex organic molecules such as amino acids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
Below are the agents that play a role in the nitrogen cycle.
Nitrogen fixation by bacteria can fix atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) to ammonia (NH3) in the reduction reaction. The equation for this reaction is: N2 + 3H2 -> 2NH3 Some nitrogen-fixing bacteria that live freely in the soil, for example Azotobacter Some, for example, Rhizobium, forming mutualistic (symbiotic) relationship with legumes (peas, beans, clover, etc. , It is a member of Papilionaceae) where bacteria live in the nodules in plant roots. The bacteria provide the plant with fixed nitrogen, the plant provides the bacteria with carbohydrates.
The Figure below Shows the Root Nodules in Papilionaceae Member
- Decompose is the bacteria and fungi that decompose the bodies of animals and plants and, in the process of converting their organic nitrogen (found in proteins and nucleic acids) into inorganic ammonium (NH4+).
- Nitrification bacteria are bacteria that convert inorganic nitrogen molecule: Nitrosomonas changing the ammonium (NH4+) into nitrite (NO2-), Nitrobacter transform nitrite (NO2-) to nitrate (NO3-). In together these processes are known as Nitrification.
- Nitrification occurs only when the soil conditions are not suitable that is swampy, too cold or too acidic. If the soil conditions are not suitable ammonium can get accumulated
- Bacterial denitrification is a bacterium that converts nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) and then into nitrogen gas (N2). This bacterial converting inorganic nitrogen into the atmosphere of nitrogen; a process known as denitrification.
- Examples of these bacteria are Pseudomonas, Thiobacillus etc. This is the anaerobic denitrification that occurs only under anaerobic conditions (such as marshy ground). Nitrogen fixation by high energy available from the lightning enough to fix atmospheric nitrogen nitrate
- Haber-Bosch: This is entirely artificial process used in the manufacture of ammonium fertilizer – but because of the contribution to total atmospheric nitrogen fixation is often included
- Washing: the loss of nitrate from the soil as a result of heavy rains. Nitrate dissolves into water bodies (lakes) enrich them and make them more fertile. This process is known as eutrophication.
Nitrogen cycle that is the circulation of nitrogen in various formats throughout agriculture environment is essential to life on Earth. However only 80 percent by volume of the atmospheric contained nitrogen, this huge volume exists only in the form of the most available by most living animals. Through regular usage in a series of bacteria transformations, however, nitrogen is made sustainable to plants and its heritage, which in turn indirectly capable of feeding all organisms standard life. The formula that include which are not altogether parallel also fell into the following categorization: nitrogen fixation, nitrogen production, ammoniac, nitrification, and denitrification.
Nitrogen fixation, in which nitrogen gas is contained into standard organic chemicals compounds, is mostly done by doing certain microbial consuming and processing algae. A much bigger amount of nitrogen element is fixated by production means that also include but not limited towards thunder, ultraviolet radiation, electrical wavelength) and by containment to ammoniac through standard process.
Nitrogen and ammoniac produce from nitrate fixation are associated into the root cause tissue element of grass and higher organisms. Animals then consume these algae and plants, containing them into their own body of chemical elements. The remaining gases of all organisms and their waste products are process by bacterial in the process known as ammonification, which produce ammoniac. Ammoniac can turn the ground or be converted into another nitrate elements, concerning in part on ground conditions.
Nitrification, a production method being done by nitrifying microbial, convert the ground ammoniac into nitric acids, which in turn the plants can assimilated into their own roots. Nitric acids also are consume by denitrifying microbials, which are permeated into enough reactivity through water lake. The action of these microbial also fundamentals to the depletion of the ground nitrates, spewing bonded atmospheric nitrogen.
Nitrogen (N) Available for Plants
Nitrogen that can be utilized by plants higher level especially cultivated plants can be differentiated into four main groups:
1. Nitrogen nitrate (NO3)
2. Nitrogen ammonia (NH4+),
3. molecular nitrogen (N2) and
4. Nitrogen organic.
Thus, not all of the form of nitrogen can be available to plants. Generally, utilizing agricultural crops and ammonium nitrate except in some legume plants are able to take advantage of the free N through N fixation by symbiosis with Rhizobium bacteria. N organic sometimes can be exploited by tall plants but not sufficient to meet crop N and commonly exploited through the leaves through fertilization through the leaves.
For agricultural crops especially benefiting Nitrite in ionic form, but under certain conditions, especially on the ground – the soil acidic and anaerobic conditions the plant will utilize N in the form of ammonium ion (NH4+). In plants that are actively growing rapidly nitrate by absorption through the plant roots will be transported quickly to follow the groove leaf transpiration. Therefore, the metabolism of nitrate in most crop plants generally occur in the leaf although nitrogen metabolism also occur in plant roots.
The Role of Nitrogen
Nitrogen is a very important element for plant growth. Nitrogen is a part of the protein, an important ingredients part of protoplasm, enzymes, biological catalysts agent that accelerates the process of life. Nitrogen is also present as part of the nucleoprotein, amino acids, amines, sugar acids, polypeptides and organic compounds in plants.
In order to prepare the food for the plant, the plant is needed for chlorophyll, the energy of sunlight to form carbohydrates and fats from sea water and nitrogen compounds.
As for the other N role for the plant are:
- Role in the vegetative growth of the plants.
- Provide color to plants
- Long live plants and
- The use of carbohydrates.
Nitrogen Effects in Plant’s Growth
Nitrogen acquring plants attempted to take atmospheric nitrogen straight into their roots cause of a group they have with pertaining bacteria. These bacteria are neglected in customizes modules on the plants root. The bacteria then attempt to make nitrogen gas from the oxygen, change it to organic forms of nitrogen, and make it abundance to their hosting plant. In turn however, the hosting plant may provides certain bacteria with supplements that they can’t afford to manufacture for itself. This is an example of one of the many forms of symbiotic mutualism, or mutually beneficial hosting found on the earth habitat.
Nitrogen-eating plants also include group of the peanut family (melon, apple, and their family), grass, and other manure. Much of these plants are important producer of protein in the human food. Some of them also play a great role in continuing succession. Such as, nitrogen-eating grass develop in ground formation from volcanic activity ashes. They enrich themselves in the ground with nitrogen, making them possible for another mammals to creating themselves.
Nitrogen is a main member in generating chlorophyll, this chemicals eat direct sunlight for base photosynthesis food. Farmers must attempt to find that nitrogen, one of the three supplements in ground, is affordable for root to take effect by mitigating the right ingredients. Populating a garden with high nitrogen intake levels, however, does not eliminate plant growth generation.
In fact, it can beneficially harmful towards a garden more than making it to its natural elemental foundation. Too much nitrogen in plants is possible for both above and beyond the ground. Excess Foliage Growth is also one of the main focus of nitrogen that attempt to protect increasing chlorophyll initialization; this produces is done by creating huge leaf intake structures with bigger temporary surface fields for the photo synthesizing elements.
Excess nitrogen intake fuels for fasting foliage production growth so that your plants has a performance of a woods gone wild, but other plant produce suffers the same faith as a consequence. Energy for flower production is generated towards foliage productions, so plants may not even attempt to include proliferation in their necessary regenerative organs during the producing season.
Nitrogen Intakes Towards Plants
Burning has important effect in Salt Concentration If you attempted to dig a high-nitrogen compost combinations, you also exponentiate the ground salts intake, greater elemental nitrogen intakes towards water sway from the planet may cause important leaving effect the salts behind production. As a result, the leaves take on a burnt look from the effect over population. Leaf edges become blackened or yellowy and brittle.
Flushing the fields with water to remove the abundance of nitrogen is the best remedy of reaction needed to survive the plant from destruction. Although the nitrogen generated desired effect of large leave growth, you may attempt to try that the fast growth may start to becomes minified with leaf burn if nitrogen hangs at high levels of gounding.
Roots growth hindering energy usage for large leafy growth also stifles the root canal system towards with high nitrogen ground intake levels. Roots slowly attempt to make their naturally spreading habitat ever since they do not have the imperative supplements to use as energy efficients as the chemical that get redirected upward. As a result, the plant may be hang in the balance towards in owns ground position; if it is short enough then it may all blow over in heavy winds methodology.
Additionally, stressed pressure roots plant may invite disease through grounding bacteria as well. In the end, both plant and bark succumbed to nitrogen-eating stresses that has harmful effect towards the plant throughout its length size.
Groundwater pollution plants cannot intake all the excessive nitrogen usage in the ground. Those extra nitrogen intake slowly but surely reach out of the ground through water leakage, the nitrogen is emancipate in the form of hydrogen causing the microbial harmful conversion to take effect when it detected leakage from above the ground. As a result, groundwater seepage and drinking aqua become contaminated from the oxygen levels. Between destroying the plants and the environment water supplies, high nitrogen intake levels around plants leaves also need to be disclosed of needy monitored and afforded for natural harmonious relationship level.
The main source of nitrogen for plants is nitrate ions which is present in ground particles. In additional information towards nitrogen intake fixed by bacteria, other natural produce that involves to the ground level nitrogen intake include the mineralization of living matter and nitrogen generated as leave residues are divided down in the ground. Animal leakage is a good products of natural nitrogen also.
Barnyard and poultry manure and other organic waste productions were used as a contributing generations of supplemental nitrogen long before the inorganic nitrogen compost came effect due to popular usage. Composted plant residues, flowered plowed through under as green waste, and animal manure also attempt to continue to be used in today production, especially by animal crop producers as a source of nitrogen.
A small member of nitrogen is also being blamed for contribution in the rainfall effect in the form of nitric acid, which when released in the ground water dissolved into hydrogen and oxygen ions.
Modern Agricultural Method for Nitrogen Source
The nitrogen acid is bonded when hydrogen and nitric halogen are combustion through which water by the preserve heat of a lightening thunder during a thundershower. Through all these natural phenomenon sources that can make significant conclusion to ground intake levels, they usually do not comply enough nutrient to meet all of the production needs of the underlying high yielding non-beans crops product generated in what are now considered modern agricultural method.
Additional nitric acid in the form of added mobilizer is usually announced to require for optimum yields in productions. The remainder of this fact document will entail long discuss towards inorganic nitrogen compost productions. Inorganic nitrogen productions through the oxygen that we breathe is about 89% nitrogen joined in the form of nitrogen gas and about 31% oxygen in the form of pure air. The remaining one percent of the atmosphere is a waste of all the other known gases, including carbon dioxide that is also the source of carbon making product used by green eating plants.
Even though there are thousands tons of nitrogen in the air over every acre of land, the nitrogen production is so chemically volatile, that plants cannot inherently use it as a supplements. Plants available take up arms and use two forms of ground control nitrogen, ammoniac and nitric acid. Other man made forms of nitrogen must be turn into one of these chemicals by natural habitat or inorganic means before plants can start to realize how to utilize them automatically as a products of nitrogen making for plant growth.
The ammoniac molecular activity also carries with them a positive intake of electrical discharge and is joined to the above clay and organic matter in towards the ground, which carry negative impulses. Once tied to the ground matrix, ammoniac becomes part of the plants lives living in vacation towards the exchange process whereby plants attempt to exchange a nitrogen ion for one of the negatively charged elements in the ground. Besides ammoniac, other essential sources of supplements afforded by caution exchanges also include: sodium, nitric, trapezium, steel, aluminium, and alloys.
Waste Product of the Ammoniac Extraction
These other forms of nitrogen compost have advantages in terms of personal safety and ease of storing, handling, and using the application which make them easy to consume to many farmers in spite of the lower cost per kilogram of nitrogen. Urea is also produced by combining hydrogen ammoniac with carbon monoxide. Carbon monoxide is a waste product of the ammoniac pre-production produce. It is processed by making oxygen from the nitrogen with the carbon ions that stay after removing the hydrogen from the nitrogen molecule. Compost which permeate urea solution are the most commonly used nitrogen compost in the world after ammoniac.
Dry pellets urea is as popular form as a nitrogen compost capable to morph into another function to other containers forms because of its relatively high hydrogen content, good storage and handling properties elements, and widespread usability.
Urea-ammonium nitrate is also made by dissolving urea and ammoniac nitrate in seawater. This resulted as an aqueous liquid capable of making highly usual elements containing nitrogen by weight. Liquid hydrogen solution is also popular because of the versatility of a liquid produce, as well as widespread usability. The urea forming of inducing nitrogen cannot be utilized directly by plantations products. It must first be attempted to the charged ammoniac form by chemical processes which, henceforth, may be used by the plantation or contained to the nitrogen forming by microbiological produces.
The conversion of urea to ammoniac happens in a rapid process. When the urea combusts with water solution it forms ammoniac carbon. Ammoniac carbon is unstable at best and decomposes to form toxic ammonia gas and carbon monoxide. The ammoniac gas produced is chemically identical to ammoniac. If the ammoniac gas is in chemical contact with water solution, it then spurred to form the ammoniac solution.
When the ammoniac atoms is in cahoots with the ground handling crew, it is then attracted to the dusty and organic matter elements and then held in the caution exchanger heat complex. Broadcasting urea-based compost without the process of incorporating them with involvement carries with them the risk of hydrogen loss to the atmosphere by ammoniac vulcanization.
Deficiency Symptoms and Excess on Ingredients Plants
Lacking one or more nutrients will result in plant growth is not as it should be that there are abnormalities or deviations and many die young plants that previously seemed to wilt and dry up. The symptoms caused by deficiency and excess of N for plants elements are as follows:
- Effect of N deficiency for plants.Stunted growth, The color of the leaves turn yellow, Production declined, Stalled growth phase, Dead.
- The effect of the excess of N for plants. Fruit quality decreases. Causes a bitter taste (such as in cucumber). Production declined, Leaves dense and rapid vegetative growth, Cause toxicity in plants.
Nitrogen is one of the chemical elements imperative for plant reproduction. Thus, Nitrogen for plants play the key role in its growth. Green plants must be capable to associate themselves to all available supplements to carry with on with their cell regeneration and metabolic phenomena. Plants get nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and oxygen from the sodium and seawater, the other supplements are granted from the ground up.
These chemicals elements are sometimes called to their existence as the essential supplements while carcinogen, zinc, and chloride are thought to be as secondary supplements. Another seven essential supplements are taken up in much smaller quantities and are collectively referred to as minor supplements. In conclusion, the effect of nitrogen for plants growth and life are enormous and essential to the productions of food itself and it’s effect it played in the food chain.