The inventor of this Compton effect is Arthur Holly Compton. Originally in 1923, there was a compton shifting event when the X-ray wavelengths scattered longer before the X rays interact with free electrons. Compton effect is X rays fired a number of electrons then the scattering X-ray has a smaller frequency than the original one.
Simple Compton Experiment
Experiments can be performed on a thin beryllium sheets that are subjected to X-rays that have a single wavelength (monochromatic). Then detector is set to observe the electrons are scattered and photons from X-rays. The results of the observation is energy partially absorbed by electrons so that X-rays are scattered wavelength greater than the original one. (Also read: elements of water supply)
X-rays that pound the electrons form a scattering angle θ toward the original direction because some of its energy is lost. If hf is denoted for the energy of early X-ray photons, the energy of the scattered photon becomes (hf – hf ‘) if f> f’and the impact of the wavelength is added to λ2> λ1.
The Compton scattering concept is applied to Compton or Comptes (Compton Telescope) and Gamma Spectroscopy Telescopes.
Example of Compton Effect
Here are the example of compton effect:
1. Comptel (Compton telescope)
Comptel or compton telescope is a development of compton scattering telescopes. In compton scattering telescopes, there are two levels of instruments. An electron in a spreading synthesizer spreads Compton’s gamma rays in a cosmic distribution at the top level. At the second level there is a synthesizer material that absorbs the scattered photons, the photon then will move itself down at this second level.
Comptel’s working principle:
The first detection layer is blue and the second is green. The incoming photons from above propagate the compton on the blue lyronis then absorbed by the green layer. The gamma compton rays that are scattered at the upper level only a small part so that the effective areas capable of being detected by compton scattering telescopes are relatively small.
Each layer stores energy measurement results with a detector-bound energy resolution of uncertainty. The result is quite good 5-10%. Comptel has a more conventional data analysis approach. Currently compton telescope research emphasizes on scattered electron tracking at the top level, so that a solution can be determined to enter from gamma rays.
2. Gamma spectroscopy
Gamma rays are rays that can not be seen merely by eye generated by radioactive material. Therefore, we needs to a detector to know its existence. The detector for capturing gamma rays is NaI (TI). The effects that occur when gamma rays concerning this detector are the effect of photoelectric effect, compton effect and pair formation. (read also: harmful irritant chemicals examples).
- The photoelectric effect occurs in the gamma rays that affect the electrons in the Kikkik on an atom, resulting in an electron transition that is filled with electrons from another skin.
- The compton effect occurs when the gamma rays are about the outer electrons whose binding forces are so small that scattering of the electron exits
- The coupling effect occurs on gamma rays that travel near the atomic nucleus with the aid of sufficient gamma rays that form positron and electron.
From these three effects above, produce the synthesis (light emission). This light beam will be passed to the photocathode by decomposing it into electrons. But these electrons are still weak. Power pre-amplifier and high pulse with amplifier need to be reinforced.
Electrons that have been amplified at the input to the PMT so as to have double the exposure of multilevel voltage and many cathodes. Gamma spectroscopy needs to be considered for its energy resolution. The smaller the better the data obtained, the bigger the more invalid.
Here are more complete chemistry theories:
- Branches of Animal Biochemistry
- Branches of Biochemistry
- Branches of Physical Chemistry
- Branches of Analytical Chemistry
Those are the explanation about example of compton effect. See you on the next article.