31 List of Chemicals in an Apple – Main Ingredients

Apple is one the most common fruit that we can eat regularly. It is one of the fruits which have a lot of vitamin B complex and also essential fatty acid that our body can’t produce. In other words, consuming apple would help our body to get their important ‘fuel’ and also help our body to do their work. But, is that true? Below you will find a list of chemicals in an apple fruit, with it the basic description and also importance. Have a nice reading the list of chemicals in an apple:

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1. Alpha-linolenic acid

Alpha-linolenic acid, or simply called ALA or linolenic acid is one of an n-3 fatty acid. It is one of the most important and vital fatty acids that are necessary for human health and cannot be produced within the human body. So, in order to get it, we need to have it via diet. A lack of fatty acids can bring more troubles than you thought.

The alpha-linolenic acid chemical formula is C18H30O2. It has an 18 carbon chain with three cis double bonds. The first double bond is located on the third carbon atom from the n end, or from the methyl end of the fatty acid chain. Because of this, alpha-linolenic acid is actually an omega-3 fatty acid or a polyunsaturated n-3 fatty acid.

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2. Ferulic acid

The next list of chemicals in an apple is Ferulic acid, belongs to a group of an organic compound called hydroxycinnamic acid. We can found it in plant cell wall. It is also called ferulate, propenoic acid, trans-ferulic acid, and more. Its chemical formula is C10H10O4. It appears as if it is a crystalline powder, which has a relatively moderate melting point which is 172 degree Celsius.

In nature, ferulic acid is a building block of lignin, pectin, or in general, the lignocelluloses. We can found it almost everywhere in the plant kingdom. Because ferulic acid is the building block of lignocelluloses, you can find it mostly in plant seed, acting as its cover. But we can also find it in the other parts of the plant.

Ferulic acid is an antioxidant in vitro, that is reactive toward free radicals. In some animal studies and in vitro studies, researchers suggested that ferulic acid may act as an antitumor against liver and breast cancer. It can lead cancer cells to their own destruction because of the pro-apoptotic effects of ferulic acid.

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3. Isoquercetin

Isoquercetin is a flavonoid, a class of fungi and plant secondary metabolites. It has other names such as trifoliin, isotrifoliin, and etc. Its chemical formula is C21H20O12, with 464.38 g/mol molar mass. Currently, isoquercetin is being investigated for its potential as an anti-fatigue agent in kidney cancer patients treated with Sutent or sunitinib and also its potential for preventing thromboembolism in cancer patients.

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4. Lutein

Lutein is one of the known naturally occurring carotenoids (organic pigments). Its chemical formula is C40H56O2. Plants are the only one that can make lutein. Just like others xanthophylls (carotenoids which have an oxygen in its rings), a lot of lutein can be found in green leafy vegetables. In animals, lutein is obtained indirectly or directly from plants that they eat, especially its leaves.

In human, lutein serves as a photoprotectant for the retina from the free radicals produced by blue light from the sun. But, it is still dangerous if you look at the sun directly. Having many or abundant macula pigments, including lutein, is suggested to decrease the risk of having age-related macular degeneration such as blindness. Some studies have supported it such as in a study by Paul San Giovanni of the National Eye Institute, Maryland, America, and a study in 2013 that was reported in JAMA about Age-related Disease Study 2. In addition to that, lutein, altogether with zeaxanthin were found to be effective in lowering the risk of cataract development and also improved light sensitivity for our visual performance.

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5. Neoxanthin

Neoxanthin is a carotenoid, specifically a xanthophyll that we can find in plants. It has other names such as foliaxanthin or neoxanthine. Neoxanthin is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of abscisic acid, a kind of plant hormone. It commonly exists in two types, all-trans or 9-cis isomers. Its chemical formula is C40H56O4 with 600 g/mol molar mass. Neoxanthin is a major xanthophyll that can be found in almost every green leafy vegetables which has a role in photooxidative stress protection.

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6. Niacin

Niacin or nicotonic acid is an organic compound that makes up the vitamin B3 complex group, alongside nicotinamide. This chemical compound is one of the essential human nutrients. Its chemical formula is C6NH5O2. This white translucent crystal has 123.1094 g/mol molar mass and 1.473 g/cm3 molecular density. With a relatively moderate melting point, which is 237 degree Celsius, this colorless water soluble solid has a 2.0 or 4.85 acidity.

Doctor use niacin to treat high blood cholesterol or pellagra (a condition in which the amount of niacin in the body is deficient). A lack of niacin can cause skin and mouth lesions, tiredness, headaches, anemia, and more. In an area of widespread poverty, in which a pandemic deficiency disease is present, niacin is found to be one of the five essential vitamins that were gone missing.

Even though niacin is important, it has some side effects to some people if they consume because of different reasons. Some of its side effects include facial flushing that lasts for about 15 to 30 minutes, gastrointestinal complaints, hyperuricemia, heart arrhythmias, and others. Scientists do not recommend us to take a high dose of a niacin supplement without a doctor consent.

However, researchers suggested that the other effects of niacin are important to help us healthy. Niacin in an in vitro studies found to produces anti-inflammatory effects in a variety of tissues. Attenuate neuroinflammation and possibly helps to treat neuroimmune disorders such as Parkinson’s disease or multiple sclerosis.

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7. Thiamine

Thiamine or thiamin is a vitamin we commonly refer as vitamin B1. Its chemical formula is C12H17N4OS+ and it has 265.35 g/mol molar mass. We generally use thiamine as a dietary supplement, that we can get from our food. As a supplement, we use it with a lot of purpose of treatment, such as prevent thiamine deficiency, prevent Korsakoff’s syndrome, Leigh’s disease or other. The side effects of thiamine intake are generally few, such as anaphylaxis or others.

Thiamine is an essential chemical compound that belongs to the vitamin B family group. We need thiamine for the metabolism of carbohydrates. Because we can’t make it, we need to get thiamine via diet. Food such as meat, fish, including apple, can provide thiamine for us.

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8. Riboflavin

Riboflavin is another member of the vitamin B family. We commonly named it as vitamin B2. Its chemical formula is C17H20N4O6 and has 376.37 g/mol molar mass. This chemical compound can help in treating riboflavin deficiency, migraines, or others.

The current research concludes that our body takes riboflavin well enough, which means doesn’t cause specific side effects to the one who consumes it. It is safe during pregnancy. Our body also requires it for the cellular respiration. The main food sources of riboflavin include meat, green vegetables, eggs, and others.

Riboflavin deficiency cause stomatitis, inflammation of the mouth, oily scaly skin rashes on the lips and more. In short, you need to consume enough riboflavin to make sure you don’t get sick.

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9. Pantothenic acid

Pantothenic acid is a water soluble vitamin that belongs to the vitamin B family. It is an essential nutrient for many living beings. Animals, for example, require pantothenic acid to synthesize CoA (coenzyme-A), proteins, and also help in the metabolism of carbohydrate, fats, and proteins. Its chemical formula is C9H17NO5 with 219.24 g/mol molar mass. We can find this odorless, colorless crystals, that has a yellow oil-like color in nearly every food we take in small quantities. We can find pantothenic in a large amount in egg yolks, dried mushrooms, or liver.

Pantothenic acid deficiency results in a lack of energy production. Excess fatigue, apathy, irritability, will happen when there is a lack of pantothenic acid. Ths happens because there is a lack of coenzyme-A that will impair our energy production. Acetylcholine synthesis is also damaged that in return can cause numbness, paresthesia, or muscle cramps. A lack of pantothenic acid might also lead to hypoglycemia.

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10. Vitamin B6

Vitamin B6, just what its name told us, is a group of chemical compound belongs to the vitamin B family. In its active form, pyridoxal phosphate, vitamin B6 serves as a coenzyme in at least 100 enzyme reactions in glucose, lipid, or amino acid metabolism. Other forms of vitamin B6 include pyridoxamine, pyritinol, pyridoxic acid, or others.

Vitamin B6, in the form of pyridoxal 5’-phosphate or PLP is an essential cofactor in the biosynthesis of five important neurotransmitters, including dopamine, epinephrine, serotonin, norepinephrine, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and also involved in the synthesis of histamine. Our body also requires PLP for tryptophan conversion to niacin. We also need it as a coenzyme for the function of cystathionine synthase and cystathionase. It also becomes the cofactor in the process of releasing selenium to produce hydrogen selenide from selenol homocysteine.

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More Compound in Apple

Besides those 10 chemical compound, the list of chemicals in an apple:

  1. Folate
  2. Vitamin C
  3. Vitamin K
  4. Carbohydrates
  5. Sugar
  6. Calcium
  7. Iron
  8. Magnesium
  9. Manganese
  10. Phosphorus
  11. Potassium
  12. Zinc
  13. Asparagine
  14. D-Categin
  15. Farnese
  16. P-Coumaric-Acid
  17. Avicularin
  18. Quercitin
  19. Rutin
  20. Ursolic-Acid
  21. Protocatechuic-Acid

Those are some list of chemicals in an apple that we consume regularly. Because apple is so useful for us, don’t forget to eat it regularly!

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