12 List of Medical Fields – Careers – Applications – Specialists

Medical science is an applied science discipline group that deals with human and animals. In its development, medical science is divided into two studies, research, and knowledge about health, as well as the application of such knowledge to improve health, treat diseases, and understand biological functions in humans and animals.

When studying the medical science, there are some basic sciences that must be mastered first before the further study of medical science. Those basic sciences are biology, chemistry, physics, and social sciences like medical sociology. To get to know more about the branches of health sciences, then we will discuss 12 branches of the popular health sciences.

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1. Medicine

The first list of medical fields is medicine. Medicine is a science of direct practice to patients that includes diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. The word “medicine” comes from the Latin word medicus which means doctor. In practice, clinicians engage in evolving healthcare activities to maintain and restore health by disease prevention and treatment. Medicine has existed for thousands of years, as long as most of it is an art that often has a relationship with religious beliefs and philosophy of the local culture. For example, a physician will use medicinal plants and pray for healing or the ancient philosopher and physician will bleed out according to the theory of humoralism.

In recent centuries, medical science has developed with the advent of modern science. Medical practice has now become a combination of art and science. Medical art is a combined application of medical science, intuition, and medical decisions to determine the correct diagnosis, and care planning for each patient as well as care for the patients in accordance with what is required by them. The center of medical practice is the relationship of patients and physicians that is built when a person searches for a doctor to solve his or her health problems.

To become a doctor, someone must first take about 3.5 years of education to get a Bachelor of Medicine degree. After that they will follow the doctor’s professional education for 1.5 years and at the end will be sworn to become a doctor. But the doctor has not received a practice license because they have to follow a resident program that is placed in some hospitals for approximately 1-2 years. Only then, a person can have a doctor’s license. And if it is less, general practitioners can take specialist education according to their choice.

  • Ability Support: biochemistry, biology cell and molecules, genetics, anatomy and physiology
  • Field of Interest: In accordance with specialist branches that are focus on a specific health problem (pediatric, obstetric, neurology, endocrine, etc)
  • Employment: Community medicine, general practitioner, research physician, lecturer, hospital manager

You may also read: Scientists Who Contributed to The Atomic Theory

2. Dentistry

Dentistry is a science of prevention and treatment of diseases or disorders of the teeth and mouth through without or with surgery. A person can practice as a dentist after studying dentistry. In practice, a dentist performs actions such as preventive, promotive, curative, and rehabilitative to the oral and dental conditions of the individual or society.

Some examples of actions performed by a general dentist are patching of cavities, tartar cracking, tooth extraction, denture making. To obtain a practice license, a prospective dentist should attend a special education in dentistry faculty for about 4 years and obtain a Bachelor’s Degree in Dentistry. After that they must follow the internship in hospital or other health facilities for approximately 2 years to be called a dentist and can practice legally.

  • Ability Support: aesthetic techniques, improve appearance
  • Interest Field: In accordance with specialist branches that are focus on a specific oral and dental health problem (Oral Surgery, Endonososes, Oral Medicine, Orthodontics, Pedodontics, Periodontia, Prosthodontia, Dental Radiology)
  • Employment: public dentist / practice, government dentist, dentist educator / researcher, lecturer

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3. Veterinary Medicine

Veterinary medicine is one type of science and practice of medicine whose job is to diagnose, treat, and prevent disease in animals. In practice the patient for a veterinarian is both domestic and wild animals. The term veterinarian is derived from the Latin veterinarius. This term is the name given to a group of people assigned to take care of veterinae (working animal). Initially the science of animal cultivation developed because the people in ancient civilizations era are very concerned about animal health that is beneficial to human life such as horses, cattle and other livestock. But over time, dogs and cats that become pets for human get a focus in veterinary science.

To become a veterinarian, someone must attend a university level education of veterinary medicine. Veterinary medicine is an official and legal profession at the university level. This education is divided into 2 stages. The first is an undergraduate education for 8 semesters which at the end someone will get a Bachelor Degree of Veterinary Medicine. After that they have to follow the professional education for approximately 1.5 years to get the title of veterinarian and able to do practice.

  • Ability Support: animal lover, able to use logic to analyze data
  • Area of Interest:
  • Employment: doctor of practice, veterinarian in zoo, veterinarian for public health, lecturer

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4. Pharmacy

The term of Pharmacy comes from the word pharmacon in Greek that means poison or medicine. Pharmacy is one of the health professionals that is responsible for the assurance of effective and safe use of pharmaceutical drugs. The scopes of pharmacy are pharmaceutical practices and the provision of drug information to patients.
In general if someone wants to become a pharmacist, that person must obtain a Bachelor of Pharmacy first after 4 years in college.

After that they have to attend a professional course about 1 to 2 years to earn a pharmacist. With this PharmD degree someone can be pharmacist and can perform pharmaceutical services. Pharmacists are known by the public as professions working in pharmacies or hospitals. Nonetheless there are other employment options such as academia, regulatory bodies and pharmaceutical industry.

  • Supporting Capabilities: chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics
  • Areas of Interest: biopharmacy, pharmaceutics, clinical pharmacy, pharmacy chemistry, apotechary program
  • Employment: pharmacist in pharmacy, hospital, pharmaceutical industry, cosmetics industry, food and beverages industry and health department, scientist, lecturer.

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5. Midwifery

Midwifery is one of medical sciences that studies about science and arts of preparing for pregnancy, helping with labor, childbirth and breastfeeding, periods of interval and regulation of fertility, climacterium and menopause, newborn and toddlers, human reproductive functions and providing assistance or support to women , family and community. After a midwifery education, someone then can be called a midwife. Midwife is one of the professions in the health field that specifically handles pregnancy, childbirth, postpartum condition and paramedic services related to the reproductive organs.

The education that a midwife should take is midwifery education. This education has several level choices, namely diploma and bachelor degree. By attending a diploma education in midwifery higher education institute, then someone can practice a midwifery practice. But the development of midwifery education now has opened some midwifery education in bachelor level and even master level.

  • Supporting abilities: midwifery concepts and services, maternal and infant obstetric care, anatomy and physiology, obstetric and gynecological basics, communication and counseling
  • Area of Interest:
  • Employment: midwives, teachers

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6. Nursery

Nursing is a profession whose primary focus is the care of individuals, families, and communities in achieving, maintaining, and optimal healing and health function. In modern times like now, nursery is also defined as a science and an art that focuses on the promotion of quality of life defined by people or families, through the whole experience of life from birth to upbringing to death.

Education to become a nurse are divided into two levels, there are diploma and bachelor degree. For diploma, education will be taken for 3 years. While for bachelor then the length of education is 8 semesters. At the time of studying nursing, the science obtained in the form of theory and laboratory and health services practice.

Both diploma and undergraduate will require students to practice in the field directly like in the hospital, health center, clinic, nursing home and others. This curriculum is made so they do not only get the theory at school but they should be able to practice what they have learned directly to the patient.

  • Ability Support: Discipline, empathy, communication skill
  • Areas of Interest: Nursing, nursing profession
  • Employment: Hospitals and health agencies either as nurses or managers or lecturers

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7. Nutrients Science

Nutrients science or Nutrition is the science that learns something about food in relation to optimal health. In ancient times the science of nutrition is not considered important by the community, but over time the science is much-loved because it has many benefits.

At this time we can find many foods that contain chemicals such as pesticides on vegetables or preservative in some canned food. Because of these problems, a nutritionist is needed to overcome the food problem encountered in the community.

A nutritionist is pointed to interpret the interaction of nutrients and other ingredients present in foods that play a role in the maintenance, growth, reproduction, health and disease of a live being. In addition, there are some legal restrictions about nutrients from government about nutrients that may be existing or that should not exist in food to make this science a lot of tune lately.
To be a nutritionist it is necessary to study the science of nutrition for 4 years at the undergraduate level. After graduation they can work and practice their knowledge as a nutritionist.

  • Supporting ability: Biology and chemistry
  • Field of Interest: Clinical Nutrition, Community Nutrition, Food Service
    Employment: Hospital dietitian, food company nutritionist, nutrition consultant, FDA staff, Food Security Agency

Also read: Branches of Organic Chemistry

8. Public Health

Public health is a science and art of preventing illness, prolonging life, improving physical and mental health, and efficiency. These points can be achieved through organized community efforts to improve environmental sanitation, control of infection disease in the community, individual education on personal hygiene, organizing medical and nursing services, for early diagnosis, disease prevention and social aspects development, which will support everyone in society that has a strong standard of living to maintain its health.

Public health education can be followed at the undergraduate level for 4 years. And the scope of this public health is:

  1. Epidemiology and Bio-statistics
  2. Environmental Health
  3. Behavior and Health Study
  4. Public Health Administration
  5. Public Health Nutrition
  6. Work Health and Safety
  7. Reproduction Health
  8. Health Information System
  9. Surveillance of Infected and Non-Infected Diseases
  • Supporting ability: Biology, physics, chemistry, sociology, psychology, anthropology, economics, and administration
  • Field of Interest: Public Health Administration, Health Education and Behavioral Sciences, Bio-statistics (Health Statistics), Environmental Health, Public Nutrition, Health, Epidemiology and Reproductive Health
  • Employment: Extension of health, sanitarian, health epidemiologist, entomologist health, medical microbiologist, health statisticians, community nutritionists, occupational health and safety officers, health administrators

Also read: Applications of Biochemistry – Animal Biochemistry

9. Psychology

Psychology is a science and applied science that study about the behavior and mental function of human scientifically. Psychology comes from Ancient Greek “psyche” meaning soul and “-logia” which means science. Etymologically, psychology means the study of things related to the human soul.

People who apply the science of psychology are called a psychologist. These psychologists play a role in studying the role of individual and group mental and behavioral functions, as well as learning about the underlying physiological and neurobiologist processes.

Thoughts about the science of human learning have existed for a long time, but because of the complexity and dynamism of humans to be understood the new psychology was created since the late 1800s by Wilhem Wundt.
Psychology education at undergraduate level may be taking place for 4 years. After graduation then they will get a Bachelor of Psychology. To become a psychologist, someone must go on to the next level for a Master of Psychology. Graduates of this master’s program are then able to practice as a psychologist.

  • Ability Support: Physiology, Neurobiology, scientific observation, experimental methodology, sociology, anthropology, social science, interview skills
  • Areas of Interest: Social Psychology, Personality Psychology, Developmental Psychology, Cognitive Psychology
  • Employment: Educational psychology, industry and organizational psychology, engineering psychology, clinical psychology

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10. Medical Analyst

Medical analyst is the next  list of medical fields, this is a study program that focuses on the field of health sciences especially in the laboratory examination. Medical analysts are different from health analyst because they are learning more specific things like blood, urine, fecal, pus, sputum and other examinations that are closely related to humans. While health analysts are studying broader science than medical analyst.

Medical analyst education program can be pursued through diploma study program for 3 years. In the course of study, students study various sciences such as clinical pathology, bacteriology, clinical laboratory methodology, and others.

  • Supporting ability: Biology and Chemistry
  • Area of Interest:
  • Employment: Analyst in hospital laboratories and other health institutions

Also read: Branches of Analytical Chemistry – Applications of Analytical Chemistry

11. Radiology

Radiology is one branch of medical science which in practice performs the scan and diagnosis of human body parts by using x-rays, either in the form of electromagnetic waves or mechanical waves. The world of technology is growing with the times, and radiology now uses not only X-rays but also uses ultrasonic such as ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Students who choose this department are students who have an interest in medical technology. Nevertheless, the department is less popular than medical science and other medical field majors. But keep in mind that this department has a specific knowledge so that the ability to be obtained will be an advantage that is not owned by others. In addition the radiology work field is also widespread because every hospital needs a radiologist.

  • Supporting Capabilities: Radiography, anatomical pathology, radiology of the human organs system
  • Areas of Interest: radio diagnostic, radiotherapy, nuclear medicine
  • Employment: Technologists of nuclear medicine, radiology technology experts, genetic counselors, radiation therapists, nuclear medicine physicians

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12. Hospital management

Hospital management is a branch of science that is quite unique because it is not widely studied by many people. In hospital management, students will learn about all hospital management without exception, such as how to systematically run the hospital system, manage hospital managerial activities, and manage hospital operations efficiently.

Although less desirable, hospital management is an important science because we can participate in improving health services in our country. By studying the science of hospital management, we can realize what is ideal for the healing of patients in the hospital.

  • Supporting Capabilities: administration, finance, informatics, public health, management
  • Area of Interest:
  • Employment: Hospital nurse, medical secretary

Meanwhile, there are at least twelve list of medical fields. For you who are taking major in this fields, you future is wide open to become one of those professions. Also, their jobs are worth the world and earn high salary.

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