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17 List of Organic Chemicals – General Structures – Functions

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Organic chemistry is one of the fields of chemistry that studies about the structure, properties, and composition of a compound. Organic chemistry is also often referred as carbonyl chemistry, because the elements that are studied in organic chemistry are elements containing carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, usually with the addition of nitrogen, sulfur, and phosphorus.

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Each organic compound has a specific group in which each group is different in nature and reactivity. This group is then called as the functional group. The functional group is an atom or a set of atoms that are attached to a compound and serves to give a characteristic property to the compound. And here are the organic compounds based on their functional group differences:

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1. Alcohol

Alcohol is a common term for organic compounds that has a hydroxyl group (- O H ) atoms that bonds to carbon atom, which it is bound to an hydrogen atoms and / or another carbon atoms. The functional group of alcohol is a hydroxyl group attached to the SP3 carbon hybridization. There are three main types of alcohols – ‘ primary ‘, ‘ secondary , and’ tertiary ‘. These names refer to the amount of carbon bonded to carbon C-OH. The simplest primary alcohol is methanol . The simplest secondary alcohol is 2-propanol , and the simplest tertiary alcohol is 2-methyl-2-propanol .

General Structure or Formula

The common chemical formula of alcohol is CnH2n + OH

Important Compounds and Their Functions

Alcohol has a wide variety of use in life. Here are some examples of the usefulness of alcohol in everyday life:

  1. Alcoholic beverages. Alcoholic beverages usually contains ethanol about 5% to 40% by volume, and has been produced and consumed since prehistoric times.
  2. Antifreeze. A mixture of 50% v (by volume) of ethylene glycol in water is commonly used for antifreeze.
  3. Antiseptic. Ethanol can be used as an antiseptic to clean the skin prior to injection, and sometimes is used together with iodine. Ethanol-based soaps are widely used in restaurants and do not require drying because they are very volatile. Alcohol-based gel is also commonly used as a hand sanitizer .
  4. Fuel. Some alcohols, such as ethanol and methanol , are used as fuel.
  5. Solvent. The hydroxyl group (OH), contained in alcohol, are polar and hydrophilic but carbon chain is non-polar which means it is hydrophobic. The molecule generally becomes non-polar and increasingly insoluble in water as its carbon chain becomes longer. Alcohol is used in industry as a solvent or reagent. Ethanol is used as a solvent in pharmaceuticals and perfume industry because it is relatively non-toxic and can be dissolved in the non-polar substance.

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2. Ether

Ether is an organic compound containing a group R-O-R ‘, with R may be alkyl or aryl. Examples of the most common ether compounds are solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether (ethoxyethane, CH3-CH2-O-CH2-CH3). Ether is very common in organic chemistry and biochemistry, because this group is a linking group of carbohydrates and lignin .

General Structure or Formula

R-O-R, with R may be alkyl or aryl.

Important Compounds and Their Functions

  • Dimethyl ether is a propellant in aerosols. Additionally diethyl ether is a potential alternative fuel for diesel engines because it has a number cetan of 56-57.
  • Diethyl ether is also used as a common solvent at a low temperature (boiling point 34.6 ° C), and was used as an anesthetic agent.
  • Tetrahidofuran is cyclic Ether, one of the most polar ether used as a solvent.
  • Polyethylene glycol is a linear polyether, is used in cosmetics and pharmaceuticals

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3. Aldehyde

Aldehyde is a organic compound that has a carbonyl functional group that is attached to the carbonyl chain on to the hydrogen atom on the other side. The most known compound of this group is methanal or more popularly known as its trivial name formaldehyde or formalin.

General Structure or Formula

Aldehydes are organic compounds containing elements C, H, and O by the formula R-CHO, in which:
R is the Alkyl and –CHO is the aldehyde functional group

Important Compounds and Their Functions

  • Formaldehyde (methanal) is used as a germ killer and preservatives
  • Formaldehyde is used to make heat-resistant plastic
  • Paraldehyde is used as rubber vulcanization accelerator

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4. Ketones

Ketone is an organic compound that is identified with the carbonyl groups that are bonded by 2 carbon atoms. The carbon atoms that are bonded to carbonyl groups are called carbon α. While, the hydrogen atoms that are bonded with carbon α is called hydrogen α. Carbonyl group is polar so that ketone is a polar compound and can dissolve in water. The α hydrogen from ketone is more acidic than hydrogen in alkane. Acetone, asetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate are ketones that may present in carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids in the human body.

General Structure or Formula

Ketones are organic compounds containing elements C, H, and O by the formula R-CO-R ‘, with R as the alkyl and -CO- as the ketone functional groups (carbonyl).

Important Compounds and Their Functions

  • Acetone is used as an organic solvent
  • Cyclic ketones are used as ingredients to make perfume
  • Acetone is used to in nail polish remover
  • Isobutyl methyl ketone / hexone is used as a nitrocellulose and sap solvent

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5. Carboxylic Acid

Carboxylic acids are organic acids which are identified with the carboxyl groups. The salts and carboxylic acid anions are called carboxylates. Carboxylic acids are polar compounds, and form a hydrogen bond with each other. In the gas phase, carboxylic acid is in dimer form.

In solution form, carboxylic acids are weak acids in which some of the molecules dissociate into H + and RCOO-. Short chain aliphatic of carboxylic acids (carbon atoms <18) are prepared by carbonylation of alcohols with carbon monoxide. For long chains, they are made by the hydrolysis of triglycerides commonly found in animal and plant oils.

General Structure or Formula

The general formula of carboxylic acids is R-COOH or Ar-COOH, with R as the Alkyl, Ar as the Aryl, and –COOH as the carboxyl group.

Important Compounds and Their Functions

  • Formic acid that is used to coagulate latex (rubber latex)
  • Acetic acid that is used as vinegar
  • Propionate acid that is used as a preservative on wheat
  • Stearic acid that is usually present in chocolate, wax, soap, and oil

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6. Esther

Esther is an organic compound that is formed by the replacement of one (or more) of hydrogen atom on a carboxyl group with an organic group (commonly denoted by R ‘).

General Structure or Formula

The general formula of the ester is R-COO-R

Important Compounds and Their Functions

Many ester compounds have a characteristic of having a specific smell like the smell of fruits. Therefore, these compounds are usually used as the artificial flavors and aromas. Here are some important compounds and their use:

  • Alyl hexasonal. The smell of pineapple
  • Benzyl acetate. The smell of pear, strawberry, jasmine
  • Bornyl acetate. The smell of pine
  • Ethyl acetate. Serves as a nail polish cleaner, paint on toys, glue
  • Ethyl cinnamate. Smell on cinnamon
  • Ethyl format. Smell on lemon, rum, strawberry
  • Ethyl heptanoate. Smell on apricot, cherries, grapes, raspberries
  • Ethyl lactate. Used in making butter and cream
  • Methyl salisilate. Smell on root beer, salsaparila

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7. Benzene

Benzene is a chemical organic compound that is a colorless liquid and flammable and also has a sweet smell. Benzene also has the chemical formula C 6 H 6, which means that benzene is composed of 6 atoms of carbon which form a ring, with one atom of hydrogen that bond to one carbon atom.

Benzene is one type of aromatic hydrocarbon cyclic with a fixed pi bonds. Many important chemical compounds derived from benzene. These compounds are made by replacing one or more hydrogen atoms in benzene with functional groups other. An example of a simple benzene derivative compound is phenol, toluene, and aniline.

Important Compounds and Their Functions

Benzene is generally used as a base material of other chemical compounds. Approximately 80% of benzene are consumed in three main chemical compound, they are ethylbenzene , cumene , and cyclohexane , and the most famous derivative compound is ethylbenzene. Styrene as a raw material will be produced into plastics and other polymers.

Cyclohexane is used in the manufacture of nylon . Some small amounts of other benzene is also used in the manufacture of rubber , lubricants , dyes , drugs , detergent , explosives material and pesticides . In addition benzene is also act as one additive in gasoline , because benzene can increase the octane number of gasoline and reduce the engine knocking.

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8. Alkanes

Alkanes is a saturated acyclic chemical compound. Alkanes includes in aliphatic compounds. In other words, alkane is a long carbon chain with single bonds. The simplest alkane is methane with the formula ofCH4. There is no limit of how much carbons can be tied together. Some types of oils and waxes are the examples of alkanes with many carbon atoms number; it also can be more than 10 carbon atoms.

General Structure or Formula

The general formula for alkanes is CnH2n + 2

Important Compounds and Their Functions

  • Methane and ethane are major components of natural gas and are usually transported in liquid form, by compression and cooled gas
  • Propane and butane can be liquefied by low pressure. Propane and butane are common in the LPG and also used as a propellant in aerosol sprays . Butane is also found in liquid cigarette lighters
  • Pentane to octane is a liquid form of alkanes. These alkanes are commonly used as a gasoline fuel for automobile engines
  • Some polymer synthetic materials like polyethylene and polypropylene are alkanes that consisting of hundreds of carbon atoms. These materials are commonly known as plastics

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9. Haloalkane

Haloalkanes are a group of chemical compounds that are derived from alkanes and containing one or more halogens. They are used as a barrier to fire , firefighters , refrigerant substance, propellant, solvent , and pharmaceutical materials. Besides widely used in trade, many halocarbons act as a serious pollutant and toxin. For example, chlorofluorocarbons have been shown to cause depletion of ozone .

General Structure or Formula

Haloalkanes or alkyl halides are compounds that having the general formula “RX” where R is a group of alkyl or substituted alkyl and X is a halogen (F, Cl, Br, I).

Important Compounds and Their Functions

There are a large number of drugs containing halogen, especially fluorine . It is estimated that one fifth of the drugs contain fluorine, including some of the most widely used drugs. The examples are 5-fluorouracil , fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), ciprofloxacin (Cipro), mefloquine , and fluconazole . In addition there are important halogenated polymers include polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and politetrafluoroetena (PTFE or Teflon). Unfortunately, the production of this material releases a large amount of waste.

The Other List of Organic Compounds

Here are more List of Organic Chemicals in chemistry fields:


1. Alkenes

Alkenes in organic chemistry is a hydrocarbon unsaturated by a double bond between the atoms of carbon . The simplest acyclic alkenes, which form a double bond and does not bind to the functional groups of any, known as mono-ene, form a series homologous hydrocarbons with the general formula C n H 2n. Alkenes have a shortage of two atoms of hydrogen than the alkane associated (with the same number of carbon atoms). The simplest alkene is ethylene or ethylene (C2H4) are organic compounds the largest scale production industry

Important Compounds and Their Functions

Alkenes serve as raw material petrochemicals because they can play a role in a variety of reactions, especially polymerization and alkylation.


2. Alkynes

Alkyne is unsaturated hydrocarbon that has a triple bond. In general, the chemical formula of Alkyne is CnH2n-2. Alkynes are widely used as starting materials to synthesize other useful organic compounds.


3. Amine

Amines are an organic compound and functional groups that consists of nitrogen atoms and their own couple. Amino is a derivative of ammonia . It is usually called as amides and has a variety of different chemical structure. Compound that includes in amino are amino acids , amino biogenic , trimethylamine , and aniline .
The smells of ammonia are may be found in old fish, urine, rotting meat, and semen because they are composed of amino substances.


4. Amide

Amide is a kind of chemical compound with 2 meanings. The first one explain that amide is the functional group of organic compound that has a carbonyl group (C = O) which binds to an atom of nitrogen (N), or a compound containing these functional groups. The second one explains that amide is a form of anion nitrogen.

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5. Nitrile

Nitrile is an organic compound that has a functional group – C ≡ N. Nitrile compound may be found in many things, they are used in super glue,  nitrile rubber , nitrile-containing polymers that are used in latex laboratory and medical gloves . Nitrile rubber is also widely used in the automotive and other seals because it is resistance to fuels and oils. Organic compounds that containing some of nitrile group known as cyanocarbon.

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6. Thiol

In organic chemistry , thiol is a compound that contains a functional group that is composed of sulfur atoms  and the hydrogen atom (-SH). As the sulfur analog of the alcohol group (OH), this group is referred to either as a thiol group or a sulfhydryl group. Traditionally, thiols are often referred to as mercaptans.

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7. Acyl Halide

Acyl halide is a compound derived from a carboxylic acid with a replacement of a hydroxyl group with halide group . If the acid is a carboxylic acid , the compound is containing functional groups –COX that consists of a carbonyl group that bonded to halogen such as chlorine . The general formula for an acyl halide can be written with RCOX, where R may be a group alkyl , CO is the carbonyl group, and X represents a halogen atom.  Acyl halides are prepared by a halogenations of a carboxylic acid, thereby being called a halide acid.

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8. Azo Compounds

Azo compound is a compound that has a functional group R-N = N-R ‘, where R and R’ can be either aryl or alkyl . Azo name comes from azote, a French term for nitrogen that is derived from the Greek ἀ- (a-, “not”) + ζωή (zoe, life). Many of the ingredients of textiles and leather in color after being treated with dyes azo and pigments.

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Indeed, there are all List of Organic Chemicals in chemistry, the compounds that uses in many fields.

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Post Date: Wednesday 24th, May 2017 / 03:19 Oleh :
Kategori : Organic Chemistry
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