24 List of Chemicals Used in Dyeing Industry – Types and Uses

Textile dye stuffs are all colored substances that have the ability to be absorbed by textile absorption and easily removed again. The utilization of natural dyes in general still use dyeing techniques to dye textile materials. Therefore, the research team feels the need to develop the use of natural dye with screen-printing techniques.

This is based on the technique of printing silk screening has popularized so easy to learn besides it will be able to shorten the time of production if used to make batik motif on fabric by the craftsmen. From the results of this study is expected to increase the productivity of the use of natural dyes for batik and handicraft products. Thus, scroll here if you want to know the list of chemicals used in dyeing industry.

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According to the source of the textile dye is classified into 2, namely:

  1. Dyes Substance Tools are dyes derived from natural materials in general from the results of 130% of plants or animals.
  2. Synthetic Coloring Substances are Artificial color or synthesis made by chemical reactions with coal charcoal or petroleum base material which is derived from aromatic hydrocarbon derivatives such as benzene, naphthalene and anthracene.

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In the beginning the process of coloring textiles using natural dyes. However, as advances in technology with the discovery of synthetic dyes for textiles, the more eroded the use of natural dyes. The advantages of synthetic dyes are easier to obtain, the availability of color is assured, the type of color is assorted, and more practical in its use Although today the use of natural dyes has been displaced by the presence of synthetic dyes, but the use of natural dyes is a cultural heritage of ancestors still maintained its existence, especially on the process of batik making and design.

The design of clothing and batik cloth that use natural dyes has a value of sale or a high economic value because it has a distinctive artistic and color value, environmentally friendly so memorable ethnic and exclusive. In this paper we will explain the techniques of exploration of natural dyes from plants around us as an effort to utilize the abundant natural resources as one of the efforts of cultural preservation.

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Natural Color Substances for Textile Materials

Natural dyes for textile materials are generally obtained from extracts of various parts of plants such as roots, wood, leaves, seeds or flowers. Batik craftsmen have been familiar with plants that can dye textile materials some of them are:

  1. leaves of indigo (indofera)
  2. bark of soga high tree (Ceriops candolleana arn)
  3. wood tegeran (Cudraina javanensis)
  4. turmeric (Curcuma)
  5. tea (Tea)
  6. Noni root (Morinda citrifelia)
  7. soga jambal skin (Pelthophorum ferruginum)
  8. kesumba (Bixa orelana)
  9. guava leaf (Psidium guajava)

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Natural Dyes in Textile Industry 

Some examples of natural dyes commonly used for coloring are:

 1. Caroten

Produces orange to red. Usually used to dye oil and fat products such as cooking oil and margarine. Can be obtained from carrots, papaya and so on.

2. Biksin

Give yellow color like butter. Biksin is obtained from Bixa orellana tree seeds found in the tropics and is often used to dye butter, margarine, corn oil and salad dressings.

3. Caramel

dark brown and is the result of hydrolysis (breakdown) of carbohydrates, sugar, lactose and malt syrup. Caramel consists of 3 types, namely acid-resistant caramel which is often used for carbonated beverages, liquid caramel for bread and biscuits, and dried caramel.

4. Chlorophyl 

produce a green color, obtained from the leaves. Widely used for food. Currently it is even getting used on various healthcare products. Chlorophyll pigment is found in leaves (eg leaves of suji, pandan, katuk and the like). Suji leaves and pandan leaves, katuk leaves as a producer of green color for various types of market snacks. In addition to producing a beautiful green color, also has a distinctive aroma.

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5. Antosianin

The causes of red, orange, purple and blue are found in flowers and fruits such as roses, henna, hibiscus, tasbih / kana flowers, chrysanthemums, pelargonium, Chinese daisies, and apples, cherries, grapes, strawberries, as well contained in the mangosteen fruit and sweet potato tubers.

The flower, producing a purplish blue color. Flower star fruit vegetables produce red color. It’s still limited to use natural dyes like anthocyanin pigments to products like juice and milk.

6. Curruminum

Derived from turmeric as one of the kitchen spice as well as giving yellow color to the dishes we make.

In addition to using natural materials, textile dyeing also uses chemicals. Chemicals have become an integral part of our lives, becoming part of our activities especially in the textile industry. Many kinds of chemicals used in the textile industry, these chemicals play an important role in the refinement process.

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Chemical Substances in Textile Industry

Here are some list of chemicals used in dyeing industry:

1. Soda Fire (NaOH)

Sodium hydroxide is available in the form of fragments (100% concentrate) or in liquid form with various concentrations.

  • Usage in textile industry:
  • To control the pH value;
  • Fixation of reactive dyes;
  • Staining with Indigo and Naphthol;
  • The bleaching process with hydrogen peroxide;
  • As a kanji-clearing agent;
  • Used for the cooking process of cotton, rayon and polyester fabrics;
  •  Mercerization process on cotton fabrics;
  •  The process of weight reduction on polyester fabrics;
  • Improvement of crepe on cotton fabrics, etc.

2. Chloride Acid (HCl)

HCl is a yellowish liquid with a strong, pungent, highly corrosive scent. Commonly as one of many list of chemicals used in dyeing industry.

Usage in textile industry

  •  As a saponification element for Indigosol dyes;
  •  As kanji-defeating agent on natural kanji type, etc.

3. Sodium Nitrite (NaNO₂)

Sodium nitrite is a yellowish white crystalline powder that can be dissolved in water. The compound is a strong oxidizing agent.

Usage in textile industry: As an oxidizing element for the formation of a tank dye (vat dye) Leuco becomes a form that can not be dissolved (fixation), etc.

4. Hydrogen Peroxide (H₂O₂)

Hydrogen peroxide has strong oxidizing properties and is a great bleaching agent. Hydrogen peroxide is also flammable.

Usage in textile industry:

  •  For oxidative bleaching in cotton;
  • Oxidation of staining with Indigo and tank dyes (vat dyes), etc.

5. Sodium Ditionite (Na₂S₂O₄)

Sodium ditionite (sodium hydrosulfite) is a white crystalline powder with a sulfurous smell. Sodium ditionite is a water-soluble salt, and mostly used as a reducing agent in the form of aqueous solutions.

Usage in textile industry:

  • For reductive bleaching in cotton;
  • Reduction of tank dyes (vat dyes) and Indigo into water-soluble form, etc.

6. Sodium Carbonate (Na₂CO₃)

Sodium carbonate is a white crystalline powder known as soda ash.

Usage in textile industry:

  •  To adjust the pH of the dye pool;
  •  Improve the purity of the dye in the coloring process;
  • Refinement of crepe on rayon clothes;
  • Used for cooking process of wool and silk etc.

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7. Sodium Silicate (Na2SiO3)

Sodium silicate (water glass) is a strong alkali compound.

Usage in textile industry:

  • Used as a binder for reactive dyes;
  • As a stabilizer in the bleaching process with peroxides, etc.

8. Naphthol dyes and reactive dyes

Naphthol color substances and reactive dyes are included in the class of Azo compounds. Azo compounds are dangerous chemicals when they enter the body and accumulate. Azo compounds can reduce aromatic amines that produce arylamines which can cause allergies to the skin.

In addition, the dyeing agent used for both dyes is the same dye of naphthol requires the ingredients of diazium salt and sodium hydroxide as dye adhesion into the fabric, while the reactive dyestuff requires sodium hydroxide and alkali for the adhesion process.

Usage in textile industry:

  • Used with diazonium salts to dye the cotton used for batik in room temperature;
  • Used for dyeing cellulose fibers, etc.

9. Rhodamine B

Rhodamine B is one of the synthetic dyes commonly used in the textile and paper industry, but the use of Rhodamine in food is still in the field. For example, Food Inspector in Makassarfound Rhodamine-B substances in crackers, bottles, and syrups through examination of a number of food and drink samples, which is so dangerous if we consume it. Rhodamine B is also a chemical used as a basic dye in textiles and paper. Initially this substance is used for histology and is now evolving for various purposes related to its fluorinated nature in sunlight.

The molecular formula of Rhodamine B is C28H31N2O3Cl with a molecular weight of 479,000. The substance that is strictly forbidden to use in this food is shaped green crystals or purple-reddish powder, very soluble in water that will produce a bluish-red color and strong fluorence. Rhodamine B is also a soluble substance in alcohol, HCl, and NaOH, other than in water. In the laboratory, the agent is used as a reagent for the identification of Pb, Bi, Co, Au, Mg, and Th and its melting point at a temperature of 165⁰C.

In Rhodamine B itself there is a bond with chlorine (Cl) in which this chlorine compound is an inorganic compound that is reactive and also harmful. The reaction to bind chlorine ions is referred to as the synthesis of the dye. Here we can use Frield-Crafts Reactions to synthesizes dyes such as triarilmethane and xentane. Record between phthalate anhydride with resorcinol in the presence of zinc chloride produces fluorescein. If resorcinol is replaced by N-N-diethylaminophenol, this reaction will produce rhodamin B.

Some of the harmful properties of Rhodamine B such as irritating the eyes, causing skin irritation and redness when exposed to the skin are almost similar to the properties of chlorine as mentioned above bonded in the structure of Rhodamine B. Another cause of this compound is so dangerous if consumed is the compound is radical compounds. Radical compounds are unstable compounds.

In the structure of Rhodamine we know contain chlorine (halogen compound), the nature of halogen is easy to react or have high reactivity hence the compound because radical compound will try to achieve stability in the body by binding to the compounds in our body so that in the end will trigger cancer in humans. Thus, that’s all list of chemicals used in dyeing industry.

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